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DID YOU KNOW? mm 



We still have the very best PD library 
for the Atari Classic 

There are over 400 disks available 

Many disks are only £1 .50 each 

Collections and special sets are even cheaper 

EVERY PURCHASE OF A PD DISK 
HELPS TO SUPPORT THE MAGAZINE 

DID YOU REALISE? 

We still have the entire ST library available 

There are over 1,000 disks 

Disks are only £1 each 

We will send you details on request 

KEEP SUPPORTING US 
AND WE WILL KEEP SUPPORTING YOU 



The Resource for the ATARI CLASSIC and the ATARI ST 



issue 83 March/April 199& 



£2.50 



FOR THE ATARI CLASSIC 




O MAGIC SQUARES 

Learn the secrets 
O COMPUTER INTELLIGENCE 

Watch out * your Atari can 
learn for itself! 

O plus •.. another look 
at Atari history 



mmiRXENE 



AN ATARI 
EXCLUSIVE 
WEB SITE 






fiJll^Rt 



iM.'iOtpdfilii 



PLUS ... LOADS OF LETTBHSl ... RECVRStOH ROtmNES ... SiUCOtt OftiAM MAPS ... AND MOPE* 




ThcinJcs 



Les Blltngham puts it all together and fills 
up tlie gaps but the real thanks goes to the 
fqllowing who made this Issue pos&ibic 

Sondjjr EUingham who takes care oTall the 
oflTiice work, advertising and mall order 

For their canlribuiions this Issus 



Joel Goodwin 

Jason Kendall 
Da»id Sargecmt 
Jtunes Mathrick 
Ann O'Drisc&tt 
Austin Hitbnan 
JStchond Core 
John S Daxiison 



Chris Richordson 

Sim^m. Atterbuiy 
Kevin Cooke 
Dennis ffed^Nes 
Terry Chamberlain 
Charlie A^res 
I>ave Bennett 
PaulL€iy 



AFOIAyGIES 



1 am siJll extremely pant in acknowledging 
contrlbuiion^ go I apologise to i^vrj-j'-onc 

who has sent in, stuff and thought it has 
gone ttirtuj^h the wormhcilt:. The intention 
to reply tu KVrryonc Is there but the time 
seemsi n? drift by. If you have not heard, 
tliarik you and keep ivattrhing the mag, you. 
rnlgh[ hr sLirprisetL 

HOW ITS DONE 

PA(iE 6 shows Jusr ivhat you can do Tilth voitr Alaii. 
NEW ATARI USER has ahvai,'?; be«n CreatMi entlrt K' ulUl 
Atari «|iilpment, Initially on tlir XL but more lately ivtth 
a Mega ST and other stuff, who needs ptTs or Maes" 
Hardwiire ir>ctudc<i a Msga &T2 [upgf^^td to 4 Mb), 
SM125 MonJior, Supra ;K)Mb Hani Disk, a HP Us«f|el 
HI, Cittef^n I24D printf.r, Flillips CMe633 rrKnltor. 
I StJXF. a CQuple of 1050 disk drt\'ts, 85C) Interface. NEC 
S023 J rinter. Principal software iisfd Js Protest and 
Fle*tSljcct Publisher 3.0. Other sofevare [rH?1udes Ker- 
inlt, TfirfTiilk. Turhn Biislc and various custom v^Tltten 
programs on rhf XL/XK.. Articles submjtied onXL/XE 
disks ane tfarlsfcrreri across to the ST via TAkn'.^K, 
Prograiiis arc coded on ihc XE aud printrdl out directly 
for pnsfliiji In aftf:F the (ypescttlng Is eompltted. All 
ntijor editing Is done with FVotc:ti and pidigps arc laid OlK 
v.-Uh 1'lc.r.t Street f^nblLsher.. Koch pa^je is fin(pu[ rllrcclh- 
trom Fleet Slreft to a HP Uiserfcr 111 vviiid] produce-? ' 
finished pofies eKactiy a.;s you sf.e them. All thai is left is 
to drop In the llRtliigs and photos. 

VVelJ, It's not quite- as easy a* that but you gtl the Idea? 



IfispirutiaTt 



I deckled io reiroe my Ubmry ticket (fit's time cwid 
borrow afeut CDsfrttm Ihe library, ! don't kixom mhy 
I didn't think of it before- A major new discovery is 
Kate Campbeli w}y3 Jicls hvo excellent CDs. She is 
one of ttii}sp artists class tfied as 'New Country' hui is 
mu£h mar^ (c^ytwids contert^Cttiny JoSk atid a crack- 
ing songwriter with superbly observed insights iiUo 
ordinary UJe. I aho had Nanci Gnffi&i's Blue Rqsg^ 
From TfiB Moons ivhich is a litiSe different Jrom earlier 
stuff" bui stiil good after a feu; pktys. Also from the 
library cams Joan Baez and Joni Mit<;heli But a few 
day^- before 1 canie to u;rit0 this ! discover^ tdat 
Robhif? Rcybertson had a new CD entitled Contact 
front the Undennarlii of Red Boy. atmthcr P^alisje 
Arnerican inspit&d eofiaction and f hod to get it. Not 
Osgood as his Inst bul stUl superb for my taster and 
interests with a song thai ttes in neatly ujjth the book 
I havejust nxid. Excellent it's on tiie ^irxidphofXes now. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 

without contributions from its readet^t NE-W 
ATARI USER Viould not be possible, PAGE 6 
uielcomes arid en<:ourages its readers to sub- 
mit, articles, programs and revieuts for publi- 
cation. Programs must be submitted on disk 
or cassette, articles should ivherever possible 
be submitted as text/lies on disk. We seek to 
ettir'ourage your participation and do not 
have strict rulesfor submissions. If some- 
thing interests you, uirite a program or arti- 
cle and ^ttAmit it! 



COPYRIGHT 

Al] tHiginal articles, prcigruTHS and other malerlii! In 
NEW ATARI USER n;:mftin the co[>>Tighi of the au- 
thor as crrrtiicii. All Ulicrcdlted materia] in [rtjpjrlght 
PAGE 6. Permissicin must be soLiijht Ijv' anvonc 
viishingto republish any materiai. Whjlss wt lake 
whatever ^ie-pyt wc cati to cnsui'e the atcuriicy of 
articles sincJ progrims and the contents oC advertise- 
ments. PAGE 6 t:aiirK>t be held liable for auiy errcirs 
"r claifns made by advertisers, 

ATARI |TM} )i a regislEied Irs^^frwfif of ATARI CORP. AH 
re4«;r«nc«« *hsuld be sa noted. NEW ATARI USEH ia. an 
irHtepenctent publicstior and ha« no confieclion witt« Atari or 
wiih any oth«f compary ar publisher. 



m 



Ediloriafadmss: P.O. Box 54, Staftortf, ST16 IDfl, ENGLAND Tel. 01785 241153 

Editor S Pubiish&r: Les EUingham - Advertising: Sandy EUingham 

Page layout by PAGE 6 ■ Printed by Dolphin Press, Fife, Scoilsnd 01592 771652 

MEW ATARI USER is publisHed bi-monthly on the last Thursday of the month prior to cover date 



PAGE 6 PUBLlSHiNG's 

ATARI 

'The Magazine for the 
Dedicated Atari User' 

ISSN No. D95^77DS 



CONTENTS 

Issue 33 - March/April ISSS 



REGULARS 




EDITORIAL 


4 


NEWS 


5 


MAILBAG 


6 


DISK BONUS 


26 


MtTE 




THE TIPSTER 


28 


CLASSIC PD ZONE 


36 


THE ACCESSORY SHOP 


and PD LIBRARY 


45 


CONTACT 


IBC 



PROGRAMMING 

OBJET DART 18 

More programming techniques for advanced tisers 



RECURSION 

A technique Jor Tnrho programming 



40 



FEATURES 



COMPUTER INTELLIGENCE 

Your Atari begins to leamJoT itseif 

PAST* PRESENT AND FUTURE 

Another look at Atari history 

MAGIC SQUARES 

It all ackis up! Secrets revealed 

JOURNEY INTO CYBERSPACE 

An Atari exclusive Web site 



COPY DEADLINE FOR NEXT ISSUE - 4th MAY 



34 
42 

47 
50 



Page 6's New Atari User 



MAGAZINE ONLY 

Annual subscription ratfrs {6 Issues) 

UK £15,00 

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Ovetsess fates fBiiact only fte diffefsncs in 
postal costs 

Please make cheques payable 
PAGE 6 Publishing. P.O. 



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Bsut of NEW ATARI USER is availabis »ith«t stpatate- 
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disk £ub£cri|piion sav«s you aJmosl ES a year. Sut> 
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to PAGE e PUBUsmNG and send to 
Box 54, Sttiffbrd, STl B IDR 



^ditoriaC 




Well, here we are bang on schedule and all going as planned. You have all gi\'en great 
support and understanding following ray eKplanatloni for delays last time and it is 
great to be able to get back on schedule. With your continuing support land 
contributions) It looks like this year will see us back on the Btraight and narrow. If you ha^1c a 
few sceptic friends, Jet them know and get them to renew their subscriptions. 



INTERNET 

A couple of Issues ago 1 said that I would talk about my Internet experiences following a \^sil to 
a Cyber Cafe in Glastonbury. Since then I have been to Glastonbury again and yesterday visited 
a local shop that offers Internet access. I have to say thai the Internet Is totally brilliant yet 
unbelievably fnislraling, 

Viilien I first logged on I used the search facilities kx>klng for favourite subjects. I tried the sci-fi 
audior Arthur C, Clarke and it came up vrfth stjmcthlng like 1,400 entries! All I managed to do 
was skim through ^ few Dkely looking entries on die first few pages and most of it was pure 
dross such as an entry on somebody's list of tlielr 100 faviourite authors! If you want Something 
popular like Star Trek It Is even worse. My son tried this and there are tens of tliousands of 
sites, totally impossible to wade through. Interesting yet frustrating. 

Tliis lalrsl time I had a few addresses t^o go directly to but 1 eiIs^j T-i^imtcd to search for 
something- Bearing in mind that it costs £5 an hour I couldn't afford to spend all day on-line so I 
booked an hour, what I really wanted to find wa.s some reference to someone called Leonard 
Peltier. Leonard Peltier is a Native American ^viio has been in prisun since 1976 after being 
convicted for a crime he did not commiL i had just read a book about his trial and. as the book 
was published tn 1991, I wanted to know his ciirrcnt situation, lliis Is where tlte Internet really 
comes into its own for without it tliere Is no possible way I could find such Infonnatlon iviUiin a 
short Ume. it would take months of research in libraries and in correspondence. Since I had no 
idea where to Start looking 1 entered his name intcj a search on YalK* (see Jolin Da\1son's recent 
articles) and it came Up With just 4 entries. These turned out to be references mtliin tlie reports 
of proceedings in the Canadian Parliament and two of tlie entries were in Frcnchl Severely 
disappointed 1 turned to drie other sites that 1 had addresses for. One of these was for Robbie 
Robertson and I found out some useful facts tliat 1 didn't know. I also discovered wViat IV 
appearances he was due to do in ihe USA in the coming months, not directly useful but where 
else could you find such informatioo? 

I next connected to Greenwich Workshop w1k> publish rwic art prints since I was Interested in 
work \pf Howard Terpnlng. 'ITils was a superb site with the last dozen or so of tlic company's 
catalogues on line to browse through. Trouble is each page was illustrated in full colour and 
wlrulst tlie quality was superb ic took ages and ages to download. Each time I v^.'cnt to a new page 
there was a minute or more wait while tlte picttjre gradually appeared. Talk about frustrating. 
Can you imagine checking out a painting in a gallery where the curator only uncovered a little 
bit of the painting at a tlnie? I checked the index available and looked up Howard Terpning and 
found about twenty entries. I began checking lliem out but realised that I was running out of 
time so abandoned this to check another site. 

Cofilinu^ an page 35 
4 Poge Q's New Atari User 



SOFTWARE 
GALORE! 



You may have thougjii thai software for tht Atari 
Classic had all but disappeared bul tlkcre arc still 

several tompanics in Ihe USA actively trading in ihe 
stuff and even producing new ROM canridges! 

One such is VIDEO 61 who have just sent us their 
lalcsl price lisl, ITiey sell new and used sofiwart for 
(he Aiiri 2600. 7800 and 5200 gsrtue jyiiems alon^ 
with hrnftii new turtridgts and disks for tfie Atari 8 bit. 
Amon^ [he 100 plus cartridges listed are gamci such 
as Alpha Shield, Claim Jumper. Con^o Bongo. Chick- 
en, Dark Chambers. Jourrtey Into SpsLp, Kl<-4cback, 
Mr. Cool, Space Journey, Springer and Topper. How 
many of those have you heard of? Not only that but 
VIDEO 61 pr>ducc their own ROM cartridges which 
include MYEKDS and ihe fol]owin|! NEW games - 
Rocks, Airsa?jer[>a7je. Hearts, Montana Solilaire. Check- 
cfi, Jailbreak, Rjcochel, SJiarp Shooter, My Jong and 
Paddle Wars, 

If you prefer disks there are 136 disks listed includ- 
ing such long gone gems as FLIGHT SIMULATOR II 
and Eic-kiniiilide-. Amtirtg ihe more unusual lilies you 
will find Aqualron, Bismarl;, Classy Chasiis, Di^es. 



Guderian, Kruck-erbockcr^, MaxwcU Mant^r, Fensale, 
Paris in Danger. Space Cowboy, Spite &. Malice^, Title 
Baojt Boxing and loads more. There ha& to be some- 
tllllig in that list that you don't have in y<3ur coUecliDn! 

The pric&s are reasonably high compared to many of 
the 'clear-out, ' bargains that have been had over recent 
years, but then many of ihe$e are scarce tille$ and 
some have not been seen in the UK before, ROM 
cartridges arc S 1^.95 each and disks are priocd be- 
tween $9,95 and Sl4.9'5 each. Shipping costs overseas 
are na mentioned so it would be best to enquire first. 
The good news is that the company accept Visa, 
Masterclass and Americaei Express so the usual hassles 
of payings can be avoided, 

Yojr best luel is to send a couple of International 
Reply Coupons with a request for-the listing and cosli 
of overseas shipping tT phone for more details- Send 
to Video 6L 22735 Congo Si. N.E„ Stac>', MN 55079, 
USA. The phone number from the UK is 001 612 462 
2500 and .Minneapolis is 6 hours behind UK lime so 
take that into account. 

If yo« do gel sofne of this obscure software piease 
cunsider ^*'riiing a review for a futun? isiue of New 
Alan User or, at ihe very least, drop us a line lo let us 
know how you got on wiih ordering and delivery. Wc 
need to share as iriuth infomiatJon as we can ihese 
days Id keep Alari inlcre^l alive. 



YOU ARE NOT ALONE! 



If you arc an Atari gaining fanatic, whether 
with an Atari computer, a VCS, 2600 or 7H00 
games systerTij you may be deliglited to know 
that ynu are not alone. 

Over in Albutjuerque, New Mexico a couple of 
diehard fanatics publish a regular newsletter 
for the likes of you entitled ORPHANED COM- 
PUTERS & GAilE SYSTEilS, Ths neviskller 
covers all those systems that have bet'n aban- 
doned by their makers and now suT\'ive only in 
the hands of fobter parents like yourself. 
Although not exclusively Atari there are many 
Atari games reviewed each issue w'ith perhaps a 
bias towards Atari systems (stands to reason!). 
The December 1997 issue included re^^iews or 
comments on several Atari games and an article 
about the 8-bit. Not necessarily in depth cover- 



age and nnly 10 pages in all, but an interesting 
read nevertheless. One of the best things is the 
author's sense of humour evidenced in 'Letters' 

page in which the 'full maijbag is presented. 
You have everything here from circulars for 
beef patties to the eleclrifity billf Some morn- 
ings I know how he feels! 

ORPHANED COMPUTERS &. GAME SYS- 
TEMS will cost you virtually nothing. All the 
authors ask is that you send $1 for the next 
issue. This, of course is for the USA so I would 
suggest that yoy send a couple of dollars at 
least to cover the p<jstage. Pop down to the banlc 
or local travel Bgent and get yourself a handful 
of dollar bills and send a couple to Orphaned 
Computers & Game Systems, 4321 Montgomery 
NE, #339 Albuquerque, NM 87103, USA, 



Pojge 6's New Atari User 



Mailhag 




This issue's 
Mailhag 
conducted by 
Les Ellingham 



Some crackU'ig letters this 
time for Maiib^j SO, without 
further csdo, lei's get going. 



FOLLOWING UP 

LoTtg-time Atari supporter 
Richard Gore has a nurr\k>er of 
interesttftg Joilow-itps from 
last Lssiif 's Maiibag so let's 
hear from him: 
" Firstly let mc say hmv 
pJeasscd I was 10 receive the 
latest isEsuc of NAU. Issuer 
82, after &uch a long wait 
from Issue SL 1 must admit I 
was fearing the vi/orst, as I 
behevf many other subscri- 
bers were, but now hopefully 
wc can continue on, 

] would like to address sev- 
eral issues made in the Issue 
82 Mailbag starting with 
Mice, Se^^'eral piugrams have 
been wiitlen to take advan- 
tage of this very useful input 
dei,1ce, As Paul Br-amley 
stated The Brundles is onCn 



but there are more. The 
Brundles le\'el editor is 
anotl:ier. Mine Sweeper from 
PPP offers a mouse option as 
does Shanghai, ii version of 
Mah-Jong from Aci.i\'ision, 
For ^ho&c of you interested In 
programming the Quick 
programming language from 
PPP (Dean Garaghty In the 
UK] ofTers built-in support for 
the use of a mouse jn prog- 
ramjning. indeed the Quick 
Ed character set designer 
frtim PPP uses it tn great 
effect PaulaJso mentioned a 
bonus program in Issue 79. 
Guntris. Well, I am possibly 
the most qualified person to 
answer (Questions about that 
pr&gram as I M,TTtite It. ajld yes 
it does support mouse input 
(and light gun and joy slick 
inputs as well), It was ^^Titten 
in Quick atid uses the mouse 
input cofiMtiands of that lan- 
guage. I'm sure there are 
others out there as well 
Now on to the issue of the 
mouse itself Se\eral years 
ago you used to be able to go 
into any computer shop and 
buy a switchabic ST/ Anil ga 
mouse, you set this to ST 
mode by lllcking a switch 
usually on tlie botUimi of the 
mouse, plug it Into pori 2 of 
your Atari and you were 
away, however tliey are not 
that easiy (o find any more! 
Mice that PC's use these days 
are. to the best of my know- 
ledge, not easily convertible 

Page 6's New Atari User 



for use on an Mart S-bit or 
ST or Amiga for that matter. 
The connectors arc different 
for a Start and the PC has 
two formats of mice (p&/2 
and serial i think] which re- 
quire software drivers to be 
insiaJled (mind you which PC 
peripheral doesn't?). It might 
be possible to use a PC 
mouse with a bit of work (but 
then again it might not] but 
by far the easiest way Is to 
u-sc a mouse from an Atari 
ST. eveti (ho^ugh 3'ou can only 
use the left mouse bvuton 
and not the right one. Has 
anybody figured that out yet 
and cofiye up with a software 
method of reading the right 
bu tton? 

Wow on to PCs. Well you 
either love or hale them. 
Some would say they're prog- 
ress, others vvQuld argue 
against liiem. I do ha^c a PC, 
1 mainly use It for Internet 
connection and DTP n'ork. 1 
ha%'e a fevv games but I still 
regularly go back to my S-bit 
and play games on that. PC 
games can ha\'c CD quality 
sound, rcalistje video play- 
back and graphics that 
would blow your mind, but 
tliey olien come with Inch 
thick manuals and require 
you to Icam eighty-si,x key 
presses ju.st 10 launch your 
ship. Most PC games in my 
opinion arc overpriced and 
over complex, sure some- 
times it is great to sit down 




for hours on end and play a 
game and be able to return Lo 
it time and time again and 
still only be scratching its 
surface, but there are times 
when you want a quick half 
ai^ hour of game playing ac- 
tion just to see if you can 
beat your best score. Some of 
the most popular gaines have 
the simplest ideas, just look 
at Bomberman ■ simpSc idea, 
simple graphics, hugely 
addictive and eminently prog- 
rammable on a a -bit 
machine, but there aren't 
many games like that about 

A lot of people now use PCs 
at work, but few acnially 
understand how they work, 
how they'\'e developed or 
even hoiv to use them proper- 
ly or efficient ly. Sure they 
make work easier In so trie 
cases but stime people arc 
'frightened' of them and \vk 
nuw have a wliole range of 
industrial diseases caused by 
people using them all day 
and we call that progress? 
You may have guessed 1 have 
mixed emotions, 1 grew up 
with the computer resolution. 
I love using I hem, I under- 
stand something about them 
and their histor\', Im no ex- 
pert but I'm vcr\f c\'nical 
about people's dependency 
and misconceptions. 

iTnere are several Atari 8 -bit 
emulators available for PC 
users like XLiU and PC Xfor- 
mcr. To my mind XLit! is the 



better of the two but PC Xfor- 
mer was the first and is still 
highly commendable. Only 
you can decide whether or 
not you are Interested in 
them. There are several inter- 
faces that allow you to con- 
nect up your PC and S-blt 
computers and transfer data 
between the two. You can 
e'ven set your PC to act as a 
disk drive slaved to your 8-bit 
Atari. Various people (includ- 
ing mysclJ) can supply the 
emulators and software to 
run on them, but why would 
you want to run 8- bit soft- 
ware on yoiir PC when you 
have your Atari sat there 
right next to your PC? God 
qiicstionl There arc several 
answers. There are people 
out tliene who have got rid of 
their S-bit equipment and 
would love to fire up an emu- 
lator and relive a litUe bit of 
what ihey grtw up with. 
Other people's machines 
might have died and they 
can't get replacements an<l so 
move on to another placform 
- lo and behold they can use 
"their Atari' again. Other peo- 
ple just want to have both. 
the best of both worlds, 
Whatei'cr your reasons, there 
arc many people interested 
and probably just as many 
not Interested. However what 
remains is that it is now pos- 
sible to emulate earlier com- 
puters on today's PCs anc3 
tlie software will pmbably 

Page 6's JVeiy Atari User 



work (even faster! on tomor- 
row's PCs and next year's 
PCs and the nest rnillcn- 
nium's PCs thus ensuring 
longevily of the machine and 
heritage even though the 
founding company has long 
since disappeared. Who 
knows Windows 2095 might 
e\i'en have emulators built In? 
Several iTKsnths ago. people 
on the Atari newsgi'oups on 
the Intenrietwere lalking 
about replacing the CPUs of 
the 8-blts with faster ones in 
attempt to make the compu- 
ters run faster. Mjiny thought 
that although It might be 
possible to replace the CPU-S 
(indeed that is possible and 
ha.s been done} trv'ing to get 
any worthwhile increase in 
speed would probably not 
work due to the architecture 
of the mothertaoar<l and the 
other maerochips, 5o how 
about this idea? XLit! and PC 
Xforrner dkn and do run fas- 
ter than the original 
machines on recent specifica- 
tion PCs. PI 50 f^entiums and 
equivalents and above, so 
without any hardware modifi- 
cations you can ha\'e an Atari 
8-bit computer (albeit emu- 
lated on another computerl 
running faster than the ori- 
ginal machines. How far can 
we push this increase in 
Speed? Can we really take 
advantage of such things? I 
don't know but ii would be 
great if wc could find out. 





I hope that IVe provided 
sdiUjC ftsod for thougjit with- 
out boriivg you. By the way If 
anybody wants Xa contact me 
by e-mail, please feel frrc to 
do so atRgorexxx^aoLoom" 



XF551 INFO 

Chris Richardson over tn Ger- 
many has sos7\e it^onrmtinn 
/or us fdlowifi^ Aian Milrw's 
letter last Issuer: 
"The XF-55 1 is capable of 
writing In four different de- 
nsities as fallows - 

• Single density (one stded) 
720 sectors/ 128 bytes = 
90 KB 

• Medium density (one 
sided) 1040 sec to rs/ 128 
bytt3= 130 KB 

• Etouble densi^ (one sided) 
720 sectors/256 bytes = 
ISO KB 

• Quad density (two sided} 
1440 sectors/ 256 bytes = 
360 KB 

The XF-55 1 is capable of 
writing on both sides of the 
disk. In Quad density the 
dTti,'e writes sectors 1 - 720 
on side 1 and sectors 721 - 
1440 on side 2. the switch 
from one side to -the other 
isn't noticed by the user. One 
of the biggest problems of the 
XF-55 1 Is its Inability to rec- 
ognise the density on a disk 
(the 1050 does this automa- 
tically) which means that the 



software must do this, DOS 
2.5 (which was supplied with 
the XF-55 1) caitnot do this 
but other DOS's Uke BIBO- 
DOS for example are perfect- 
ly capable of quad format 
with the XF-55 1. It is not 
possible to Just turn the dl&k 
over as with the 1 050 drive 
as the drive docs use the tim- 
ing hole which would then be 
on the wrong side. Years ago 
It was possible to get disks 
with two timing holes but 1 
don't know where you could 
still get them. 
I have two 1050 drives and 
have never owned a XF-551 
SO i hope all this Information 
is correct, 1 would encourage 
anyone using a XF-55 1 to 
buy a copy of BIBO-DOS 
from Klaus Peters Elektrontc, 
Compy Shop, Gnelsenau 
Stnasse 29, 4330 Mullhclm, 
Germany." 



PC TRANSFER 
PROBLEMS 

Philip Brown Jmm Ipswich is 
one user who Would like to 
use QPCcdongside his S-bit 
but Ls halting p roblems : 

"I wonder if any of your 
readers have come across the 
following problem. If so 1 
would be grateful for any 
advice you have to offer. 

Some years ago 1 bought a 

Page 6's New Atari User 



second-hand Atari eooXL. 
1050 disk drive and 1029 
printer to use as a woid pro- 
cessor. Over the years I wrote 
many short Stories and 
poems which, of course, I 
stored on floppy disks. Even- 
tually I purchased another 
second-hand computer, a 
Tandon 2S6. Wishing to 
transfer all rny flics to the PC, 
I also purchased a GM Trans- 
fer cable and software from 
Derek Fern- Unfortunately I 
have had no success whatev- 
er In using the transfer cable. 
There are several posslbUlttes 
for this: 

- The 286 PC may not be 
suitable, maybe 1 need a 396 
or higher, 

- From time to time the 286 
crashes, leaving me with a 
blank screen and the mes- 
sage parity Check in the lop 
left hartld comer. 1 have, after 
extensive enquiries, found 
that Parity Error would indi- 
cate a faulty RAM chip but 
have, hopefully, eliminated 
this problem with the help of 
a diagnostic program. 

- During my enquiries 1 disc- 
overed that some early Win- 
dows programs, I have Win- 
Saws 3. 1 , contained a fault 
that could cause the 
problem- 

- The most likely cause I be- 
lieve is the fact that my Atari 
1050 dri\'e was modified by 
having an Innovated Software 
Plate fitted. TTiere is an elec- 



tronic toggle device to change 
from normal to the IS mode, 
but I often have trouble load- 
ing programs, especially In 
the IS rrkode. For Instance 
Mini Office would load with 
very few problems but Atari 
Writer Plus would not load in 
either mode, 

- The fifth reason could be 
OpcTator Ignorance. I Qod 
that the operating Instruc- 
tions are not completely Idiot 
proof A VTciy simple step by 
step set of instructions might 
be helpful. 

[ can load the S102PC ver- 
sion 2 program on my PC. 
either from tlie floppy disk or 
the hard drive, through Win- 
dows but there is no sign of 
interaction between the PC 
and the Atari XL, 

Here's hoping that One of 
your readers may be able to 
throw some light on the 
problem." 



PC CONNECTIONS 

Hers are some suggestions 
and obsenxilions Jnifn Simon 
Atterbury on making ii easwf 
to lise emidotors on tixe PC, 
"I hav-e been reading with 
great interest in the last few 
issues of NAU about emula- 
tion of the Atari Classic on 
the PC. Reading the letters 
pages it seems as though a 
lot of the readership own 



PC*8. In that case why don't 
you offer Freeware/ Share- 
ware etc, emulation softwait 
in the Page e Ubrary for PC's 
and Mac's. If you get a 
reasonable user base you 
may want to offer the PD 
software you hold in the lib- 
nuy on 3.5 inch PC format 
disk for all emulation u sers. 

As there seems to be sevejral 
emulators out there you may 
want to reconunend one as 
the standard emulator for 
NAU readers and ensure that 
any Hies you hold in the lib- 
raiy are compatible with that 
emulator. 

As an owner of an Atari 800 
(starting to fall apartj, two 
SOOXLs (one with dodgy 
keyboard and the other with 
lou!^ video output) and a 
1 050 disk drive (only works 
during the full moon), I am 
already running 8-bit prog- 
rams on my PC, Therefore I 
would certainly be interested 
in the above scnicc. 

Obviously the emulators and 
a lot of the software arc a^^'ail- 
able on the WWW for down- 
loading but the ■Convenience 
of sending off an order to 
you, getting the software 
(that actually works) on a 
disk and havdng proper 
documcnlation would be of 
great benefit. 

What do you think?' 

* Interestirtg kieas theTe, 
Simon but one or tti>o prob- 
lems^ Orte of the reasons that 

Pags 6's New Ataii User 



£?» Page 6 library u^os so 
smxe^sjul in the eaAy daifS 
when there were many PD lib- 
raries about was that f took 
PD programs from^ mofuf sour- 
ces, checked them all out to 
moke sure they worked (and 
mope importantly mcude sure 
that it wasjairty easy to 
understarid how to use th^rrif, 
and put them on A disk in 
such a UJoy that anyone could 
use ihjem. You didn't have to 
urtderstarvd programming or 
work out what to do to ^et a 
program to run. Provided you 
underetood the basics qf 
using the Atari, you simply 
fieedsd to boot up t)\e disk 
and input your ch^Ke of prog- 
ram from a meniL. Now I am 
sune llvxt this sort oj idea 
would iLork equcdhj as well 
for PC users (n the* way you 
suggest kathsr than have to 
trawl the Web lookls^Jor 
prx^rams that might ot might 
not uxfrk, woiddn't ii be 
easier to huy ready mads 
disks that someone else had 
already tested. lam sure it 
would be popular. 
The problem is that I don't 
have a PC and ujithoul orte 
there is no way that I can test 
programs or put together 
disks, Tfw even worse neu^s 
is that it is unlikely tJiai / 
WQlild be able to afford to bug 
a PC until the 21st century, 
and even then not for a good 
wMle, so it looks as if a good 
(dea LL'ill have to be consigned 

& 




to the 'good ideas that never 
u)ere' basket Sony! 



HERE BE MICE! 

[n the last issue Paul Bromley 
asked whether anyone kneu/ 
of progriuns for the 8-bit that 
used a moitse. Kevin Cooke 
has been doing some re- 
seapch and has come lip with 
the following: 

"As far as I know the full list 
of software that can use a 
mouse on the 8-bIt Is as fol- 
lows: Brundics, Brundlcii 
Editor, Piintworks. Operation 
Blood Jl, Quick Ed {character 
set edimr), S,A,M.. SAM 
Budget, SAM Designer. SAM 
Utillly Extensions 1. Card 
StaK (on Future Issue 14j, 
Multl Mouse (Page 6 Issue 
42) and a game written by 
myself called 'Noughts and 
Crosses' on a past Jssue of 
Futura. 

Multi Mouse is great and 
was used to write my own 
Noughts and Cmsses game. 
If you want to use it in Turbo 
Basic however, you'll need a 
nwdtfied version available 
from several PD llbrarlea. I 
also wrote a csolumn called 
"Adding A Mouse' In several 
issues of the Futura disk- 
mag, reviewing much of this 
software. Cheek it out for a 
more in-depth examination of 
using a mouse on the Clas- 

10 



sjc. 1 hope this helps Paul out 
or perhaps gives him a lead 
to other software. 
Whiles I think of it, in a long 
gone issue of Page 6 (or It 
may have been Atari User) 
one company was advertising 
mice for sale on the Classic 
and some software including 
a patch that would allow 
Atari Artist to recognise a 
mouse. Does anyone know if 
It really e?nsted or was It 
vapourware?" 



DRIVE PROBLEMS 

Dennis Hedges from South- 
airtpton needs soiDe help in 
fixt^ his 1 050 disk driite and 
Tvo (ioubt someone wiJi have 
the answer. 

"Can anyone help? ! seem to 
be In trouble with my 1050 
drive again- T am unable to 
write to it unless I take the 
cover off. [ know what the 
problem is but [ have been 
unable to find the correct 
parts to fix it. The sensor on 
the UTite protect Is not work- 
ing, it appears to be the top 
one as looking at It the little 
bulb l3 black, 1 cannot see 
any manufacture's markings 
on it if there ever were any. Is 
this an Aiiiri only product or 
some tiling one can get from 
Maplln? 

I should like to tsJce this 
opportunity to thank l^s and 

Page 6's New Atari User 



Sandy for all the good work 
In keeping the magay^lne 
going. I may not understand 
it all but It is nice to know 
that someone is around! to 
help, A thank you to Derek 
Fcm from Micro Discount tn 
February for giving his 
assistance In going through a 
S102PC problem 1 had. 

Also arc theit any Atari 
users here in the south of 
Hampshire. I know a while 
back there were some In the 
Portsmouth area- If you are 
still there 1 would like to 
make some contact," 

I Thanks, Dennis. It looks 
like you might be able to heip 
Phdp Brown (ftee his letter 
this issite) ii^ithSI02PCprob- 
lerns and. 1 am sure someone 
will eome up inilh an answer 
to your I050prohlenx If any- 
one local to Dermis wants to 
get in touch, give him a ring 
an Oi489 601771. 



TRAIN TIME! 

Terry Chambedaifi has spent 
a good coiipie of years an ft 
special project but here finds 
time in help out UfUh answers 
to severed of the questions 
posed in last issue's Moilhag, 
"1 was veiy happy to receive 
the latest issue (82) of New 
Atari User and see in your 
editorial that you intend to 
cany on for yet another year 




- but I was also sony to hear 
about the effort that it is 
costing yoti to keep £Olng. 
Please believe that your hard 
work Is very much appreci- 
ated. ] hope that the ^inall 
contribut^n enclosed for the 
latest PD disks is of some 
help. 

Vou may recall about a yeaj- 
ago I wrote telling you of the 
current Atari project that is 
occupying all of my spare 
time. This is the hardware 
and software to implement 
an interface from the Atari 
Classic to control model lail- 
ivays using the Digital Com- 
mand Control system - as re- 
quested by Decker McAllister 
and his colleagues In Califor- 
nia and Arizona, 

After nearer two years of 
work (and Considerably 
beyond my initial esUmatesJ 
it looks as though completion 
is in sight The first dcTnon- 
stratlon viersion of the soft- 
ware, which now stretches to 
over 15,000 lines of Assemb- 
ler source code was released 
Just before Christmas for eva- 
luation- Much to my relief it 
appears to run perfectly on 
the NTSC [USA} versions of 
the Atari Classic - since it 
Involves a lot of critlr.al tim- 
ing routines i was a UttJe 
worried that changing to 
60Hz screen frame rate from 
the normal PAL SO Hz mtc 
would disrupt operations ■ 
but all seems well. 



1 am now back working on 
the design of the interface 
eiectronlesi, to bring them 
Into line with the needs of the 
software, and it looks as 
thpugh I might manage to get 
a real working system before 
summer. I won't manage to 
write it up as an article be- 
fore your next deadline of 
2nd March, but I will make 
every effort to produce some 
text for you for the issue after 
that 

Meanwhile, 1 can, perhaps, 
add a lew corruiKnts to some 
of the topics brought up in 
the most recent 'MaUbag', 
Flrsdy, I can claim to be one 
of the people who ha\Tc re- 
tained their At.arj Clas-slc sys- 
tem after acquiring a PC. In 
lact, production of the soft- 
ware for the model railway 
Dec project miendoncd above 
would have been almost im- 
possible without the use of 
both types of machine. [ use 
the excellent Si02PC share- 
ware software produced by 
Nick Kennedy to connect my 
800XL to the PC. The actual 
connection is made by a 
small piece of hardware very 
simlbr tjo the RS2:32 inter- 
face described In Issue 81 . 
TTiis is relatively easy to con- 
struct following the docume- 
ntation provided by Nick 
Kennedy (and perhaps taking 
into account the <:ommentB 
niiade by John Foskett in 
Issue 82) and conneeis the 

Pc^e 6's New Atari User 



Atari SIO port to any RS232 
serial port on the PC. 

Once connected, the 
SI02PC Software running on 
the T»C turns the PC int<i a 
set of 'super" Atari disk drives 
which can be handled under 
any Atari DOS system with- 
out any modifications to the 
Atari hardware, and without 
any additional software run- 
ning on the Atari machine. 
Atari files can be stored on 
the PC hard drive or transfer- 
red to PC floppy disks, so you 
can have your complete Atari 
library almost Instantly to 
hand. 

Using SpartaDOS (or, 1 be- 
lieve, MyE>OE) ft is possible to 
set up these 'super' disks on 
the PC with a capacity of 
I MB - which was essential 
for the model ralhvay project 
whcie the source lilcs 
amount to around 500KB 
and the Assembler list file 
alone occupies in excess of 
650KB, 1 have to admit that 
files of this size are totally 
beyond the capabilities of any 
of the Atari text editors, so I 
actually use the PC to gener- 
ate and edit all of the 
Assembler source code. This 
Is then transferred to the 
Atari 800XLT.1a an RS232 
commis link, using a P;R: 
Connection and BobTcrm at 
the Atari end to handle llie 
communieaUons. BobTerm is 
by far the best cximms prog- 
ram for the Atari Classic 

11 





machines tatd translates the 
PC's CR/I-F ASCII characters 
to Atari 'End-of-Lintf' charac- 
ters 'on the %'. After a little 
more manipulation on the 
800XL the translated source 
llle (held on an SI02PC 
'super' disk In the PC) can 
then be accessed by the 
Assembler/Editor cartridge 
and assembled to produce 
the required machine- code 
objetl program and the out- 
put list file. These are output 
directly to another S102PC 
*super* disk file on the PC 
alnce there fa no way the very 
large files Invoh'ed could be 
held within the 800XL mem- 
ory or on a ital Atari disk 
drive. 

Although ft all sounds veiy 
complex, it fs relatively easy 
to u&e In practice - and very 
saOs^ng to utilise the PC as 
an Atail peripheral! 

With regard to the use of a 
mouse on the Atari Classic, 
this Is ceiisinly possible 
although 1 am not aware of 
any commercial or PD prog- 
rams wlilch currently provide 
employment for the little ro- 
dent. Mice intended for either 
the Aliiri ST or the Commod- 
ore Amiga can be connected 
to a Joystick port, although it 
is not possible to connect up 
a Serial or PS/2 mouse In- 
tended for PC Use. To follow 
fast mouse movements it is 
necessary to sample the 
mouse sfgnsds at around 

12 



1000 Omes a second - per- 
fectly feasible at Assembler 
level but beyond the capabil- 
ity of any routine written in 
Basic, Mouse usage Is fully 
supported in my own model 
railway control aoftware 
which Incorporates the 
necessary machine -code 
routines'. Less than 250 lines 
of Assembler arc required to 
implement a general -purpose 
mouse handler which can be 
Incorporated tn the standard 
Atari CIO system and. hence, 
made accessible to any appU' 
cation piograiti written in 
Daslc or machine code. A few 
years ago I successfully mod- 
ified the code of the game 
Taipei' (a version of Shanghai 
or Mah Jong solitaire, avail- 
able at one time from Page 6] 
to accept mouse rather than 
Joystick input. This was writ- 
ten up for an article which 
appeared in the now-de- 
ceased '8: 16' magazine- If 
there is any interest among 
your readers. I might resur- 
rect some of that article for a 
future issue of NAU. 
Finally, in reply to the query 
from Alan Milne on how to 
escape from a machine-code 
subroutine back to Basic, all 
that Is required is to execute 
an R'l'S instruction in the 
subroutine - proT-lded that 
the machine-code subroutine 
has previously taken all of its 
parameters, which may have 
been passed to It from Basic, 

Page 6's New Atari User 



off the computer's stack. Pul] 
details of the process are de- 
scribed in Chapters 4 and 1 1 
of "Your Atari Computer^ by 
Poole, McNUr. & Cook. Brie- 
fly, when you call a machine 
code subnjutine from Basic 
with an instruction of the 
form - 

A = USR(ADDR,P1.P2) 
- the address of the next 
Basic instruction is first 
pushed to the computer's 
stack (a reserved area of 
memory) as two bytes. The 
values of the optional para- 
racters - here P 1 and P2 - are 
pushed to the stack as two 
more bytes each. P2 first 
then Pi. Finally, a one byte 
value equal to the number of 
parameters (zero if there Eire 
no parameters) is pushed to 
the stack and execution then 
Jumps to the memory 
address of the subroutine, 
given by the value of ADDR 

Within the USR subroutine, 
values are progressiiHTely re- 
moved from the stack by 
using the PLA instruction, 
one PLA to get the number of 
parameters (usually the first 
Instruction executed In the 
machine-ctjde), then pairs of 
PLAs to fetch the parEimeters 
(high -byte first) starting wi\h 
PI, then P2, in the rev'erse 
order from which they were 
originally put on the stack. At 
the end of the USR sub- 
routine the stack should only 
contain the two-tyte address 



of the nsrt Basic jnsLniedon. 
This is pulled off the stack by 
execution of the RTS Instruc- 
tion, and program execution 
returns to your Basic 
program. 

It is possible to pass a two- 
byte value back to Basic from 
the USR subroutine by in- 
cluding instructions to load it 
to memorv locations 212 and 
213 ($D4 and SD5), low byte 
In 2 1 2. On return to Basic, 
the value will then appear In 
variable A, In the above ex- 
ample, or in whatever other 
variable has been assigned 
the value of the USR function 
in your program. 

All the best for the future! " 



REPAIRS AND 
EMULATIONS 

Charlie Ayresfrom Wood 
Green in London Cs arwther 
mho has connecied up a PC 
with his Atari arid sfwres 
some of his Jindtjigs, alarm 
wtSh sonw advice on repairs 
and soiTM? heip with Midii- 
BooL 

"Back in issue 79 I wrote 
about repairing a defunct 
power supply. Part No CO 
6 0592-3 4 /TM 7498, which 
had a hidden fuse in a sealed 
unit. I have now had another 
failure with a power supply 
Part No CO 6 1516/34 which 



is supposed to be used with a 
1010 recorder. This one is a 
lot trickier to repair but it 
can be done. First of ail It Is 
in a completely scaled unit 
with no way to obtain entry 
but there is a groove around 
the middle of the unit If you 
carefully cut around the 
groove with a hacksaw it Is 
possible to get to the inter- 
nals without too much dam- 
age, tnslde Is a transformer 
which has connected across 
two terminals a small black 
re:ctangular objecL This is a 
tlienmal fuse and Is marked :- 
UMl D3, X21. 102 Degrees 
C.3amp.250'V^olLs. Unfortun- 
ately MapMns do not stock a 
replacement for tills Item but 
I have tried a S Amp thermal 
fuse and although the voltage 
is too low it does at least 
work. Docs anyone know 
where T can source the cor- 
rect thermal fuse? It is not 
too easy to eissc mble the case 
again as there fs no way to 
connect the two halves but 1 
have cheated by using black 
FVC Insulation tape and ft 
mLikcs quite a secure Job. 
1 am a serious collector of 
old computers since 1 bouglit 
my firmt Atari 800XL way 
back in tlie earlj' eigjities and 
I now hetVK 28 assorted com- 
puters all In perfect working 
order from the 6CH>XL up to 
an Olivetti PC and I was very 
interested In tlie items about 
emulatoni and using a PC to 

Pc^€ 6's New Atari User 



run Atari pmgrams, I have 
tried GEMULATOR to emu- 
late an ST on the PC and it la 
a great progmm which wiU 
also enable you to then emu- 
late an SOOXLon the ST 
emulator. Quite a long win- 
ded way to get back Lo the 
Classic but it works. At the 
moment [ am trying to get 
Pacifist and also Tosbox to 
work on the PC but although 
] can ge t Slo sscr disk 1 1 to 
run OK there fs a pnoblcm 
with other disks which will 
either give a blank desktop 
without the drives showing 
but with the Busy Bee work- 
ing with the mouse or else 
the first screen will come up 
and then the computer locks 
up. If anyone has tlie 
answers to these problems I 
would be very happy to hear 
from them. 

I have recent^ been looking 
Into the possibilities of con- 
necting an STE to the PC so 
that I can utilise the spare 
space on a 1.2 Gig hard drive 
to save Atari programs and 
also to use the CD ROM 
drive, 'I'hls appears to be 
something which can be done 
using a null modem cahle 
and a program called Ghost- 
link. I would also like to 
know if it is possible to con- 
nect a 210 Meg Seagate drive 
to an STE using an ICD link. 
This was mentioned in an 
Atari ST Review mag way 
back in 1 992 and it was 

13 




rather expensive then. Is 
there another way to connect 
these two that has been disc- 
overed since then and what 
will the cost be or Is there 
anyone who has managed to 
complete the connections 
and get their systems work- 
ing properly? Please let ine 
know. 

In reply to the letter from 
John Hull about ti^nsferring 
fiTjim disk or cassette I have a 
csopy of MULTI-BOOT XL 
which wUl transfer program- 
mes fnoTii both to a dtsk and 
wiU run when OPTION is held 
down while switching on- 
This gives you a menu to pick 
froin and you can select the 
program you wish to run. 1 
have tried to coni-'ert tny tape 
cciOecbon to disk uatng 
TE?ANSDISK but there are 
some programs which wlU 
not transfer aeross but there 
is a possibility that you can 
do It with MULTI-BOOTXL, 
This works with games but i 
have not tried it with text 
(lies and so cannot say 
whether this is possible. This 
disk came with a collection 
that I purchased quite a long 
time ago so I do not know 
whether it was released as 
PD or if it Is a commercial 
program. There is a slight 
problem that may occur 
when oopyfng fmm tapes and 
that Is tf diere is a screen 
loaded first and then a gap in 
the tape l>eforc the progfaiti 

14 



bads you may get Just the 
title screen copied and then 
the program thinks It has fin- 
ished the copy so It stops. 
Perhaps Lea can find where 
the programme originated 
from and whether It can be 
ua^d In the PD library. 
This may get some response 
from readers so I will close 
but 1 am enclosing an order 
with this letter (or article If it 
Is too long for the Jcttcr page). 
From the contents of issue S2 
It seems that there are only 
the same few regulars that 
are contributing to the the 
magiaztne SO lets give him al) 
the help we can in 1998 SO 
that PAGE 6 can continue to 
give us, the Classic Dlehards, 
the support that he has con- 
tinued to give us for many 
years." 



OF MANY THINGS 

Dave Bennett of Coventry haft 
loads of thitigs to get you 
thinkii^gfor next time: 

"[ have not been using my 
800XL for some time as I 
seem to be kept busy despite 
having been retired for over 5 
years now! I am still interes- 
ted howc^iTcr and do intend to 
get back to it eventually. I 
have a reasonable number of 
games and programs and tiy 
to keep up with the news, so 
I was I'eiy pleased to see the 

Page 6's New Atnn. User 




lat^t issue of your magazine 
arrive. 

You said that you would like 
something for the letters 
pa^. so perhaps some of my 
comments could help to fLU 
in. First, the uses of the Atari 
computers - it seems that 
many people stlU use them 
for serious use, not Just 
games and [ use tny ST for 
personal finajiccSH using K- 
Spread version 2 that came 
free with a magazine at one 
time. I also use Rrst Word 
Plus version 2,02 regularly, 
mainly for letters and intend 
to keep on using these prog- 
rams indefinitely. With both 
of these program.s 1 would 
like to have a copy of the 
manuals but I seem to re- 
niemtter having difficulty 
finding even updated ver- 
sions with manuals when t 
tried many years ago. Are 
there any sources of these 
manuals still available, poss- 
ibly with updated and hope- 
fully compatible versions of 
the software? 

I bought Railway Tycoon for 
the ST a few years back^ fmm 
a computer shop that was 
clearing its Atari stock and 
found a bug - ai times the 
railway network put In diffe- 
rent lines to those entered on 
the 'map' and the program 
either allowed collisions, re- 
fused to reroute trains, or 
signals malfunctioned, V^VTicn 
1 eventuallv contacted the 



help Une one person seemed 
to romcmbcr there being a 
bug at one time, but 1 was 
told It was now old and I 
should return the game to 
the shop where | bought it as 
they no longer supported it In 
Atari format. Fortunately It 
seems to run okay most of 
the time and I can cope, but 
presumably this now applies 
to all programs and any 
assistance or information 
about faulty prognams must 
be through your pages. 

AntlclpaUng problems with 
repairs In future, 1 bought a 
spate 800XL and 1040ST 
when I got the chance and a 
list of contacts who can make 
repairs could be useful, as 1 
see this as a real problem. 

In passing you may all like 
to know that the reason for 
someone selling tne the Spare 
$T was because of the diffe- 
rent IBM system used at 
schools, and the relatively 
poor programs thai came 
with the machine, despite 
their favourable impression 
of the machine Itself. When I 
compared the programs pro- 
vided with my spreadsheet 
and word processor programs 
I saw the Atari falling - with- 
out contact with a magazine 
or user group to get better 
and extra programs ( too 
would have used a different 
machine! 

While I intend to keep my 
Atari computers I would like 



my daughter and family to be 
able to use my programs on 
their IBM PC. Neither of us 
has a modem so is there an 
emulator progi^am and In- 
struction book for the ST and 
XL available by post? 

Also can anyone tell me how 
1 can tell if second-hand hard 
disk or disk drives are Atari 
compatible without actually 
trying them out? 

Can you please help me vrfth 
a solution to Silicon Dreams? 
Ideally 1 would like a com- 
plete solution ao that if 1 get 
stuck again I can find a way 
forward, but at present 1 
could do with some help In 
Snowball. According to the 
leaflet enclosed with the 
^me there should have been 
a hint sheet available as an 
extra at some time - presum- 
ably no longer for sale - but 
can anyone let me have the 
information? [ got iu the lift 
and seem to need a spanner 
to open a hatch In the roof of 
the lift- 1 think that 1 need to 
find a maintenance robot 
GrsU but despite going all 
around the available part of 
the ship I can't find a span^ 
ner or robot! 

In passing does anyone 
know why the tape copy I 
have was Issued by Level 9 
Computing as 3 titles, plus 
an adventure called Lords of 
Hme, yet the disk version 
(while gi\'ing credit to Level 9) 
seems to he issued by Rain- 
Page 6's New Atari User 



bird? As a minor point when 
did ET get involved with com- 
puter games, since Rainblrd 
seems to have been part of 
BT - and does anyone know if 
they still deal with computer 
games? Somehow I don't 
think of BT In connection 
with CDTnputcr gamesi 

Finally now that magazines 
for the ST seem to have all 
ceased publication, is it pos- 
sible to include a section on 
the ST in New Atari User, 
since [ sec that you still have 
an Si disk libraiy? 

Good luck with the maga- 
zine, keep it golngl" 

t Some ittteresting points 
hens that I can heip irilh but 
perhaps the most tnieresting 
is the suggestion of getting 
together ft contact list of peo- 
ple who can repair both STs 
and the Atari Classic. We 
often get calls asking Jior 
advice on repairs but don't 
kjyoin what to advise any 
more, Abaut aU I can suggest 
is that the enqixifer buys 
anottvsr machine through- 
Micro Meu% the iocal paper or 
at Q car boot sale sinee they 
can often be picked up for 
less than the cost or repairs. 
There must be someone 
ojTJunci Lhoii^h capable of 
effecting rEpairs on the AtaH 
SO if you have any contacts 
let us krtouj so that zue can 
pass them on- 

In Silicon Dreants the span- 
ner you need is found at the 

15 




bottom of the lift shaft in a 
toolbox How do I know this? 
Easy, 1 typed in the Tipster 
oolumrt this issue ujhe^re yati 
wtiljkid lots qfbifo on Silicon 
Dreams courtesy of James 
Mothiick. i have hod this for 
some time but kept puttlr^ off 
{ncluding tt in view of the 
arnounl ofxiXffk. fiseded to get 
the maps frito Q usable /onri 
for the magazine. Your letter 
hns spurred! mfi tixto octtort, 
Dave. (I might regret it though 
as I am typU^g fM? before I 
start work Ort those maps!) 

Your coTTunentS about BT are 
(uteres ring we, looking back, it 
seems that aimost everybody 
wanted to get involved wUh 
the cornputer scene in the 
SO's. Presumably they ail 
ihoughl that there was big 
money to be made or ujcinted 
Id get in ahead of competitors 
in case it really took off, Nat 
surprtsti^ty theie was not 
enough consHrner money to go 
Tound and oimDsi oR tfie 'out- 
side' cor7y>an^s have long 
gortet Rairibird was, Ifvieed, 
British Telecom's aflempt to 
comer the home computer 
market and they started by 
re-packaging existing soft- 
ware such as fjeueJ 9 odiien- 
tures. Whilst BT couldn't 
write software they could pro^■ 
vide all the fancy packaging, 
advertis ing and hype. 
Obviously Level 9 Loere frt- 
terested, as were many other 
'small' companies but I seem 

IS 



to recall (hat abnast every- 
body got 'burned' in the end. 
Ail the promises of riches 
came^ to nothing* I think Thorn 
EMi LWre the first hi§ 'non- 
compuier' company to become 
involved with software as 
they had the distribution 
rkihts to the Atari VCS and 
(jTitta% the Atari computers. 
Others, who you might not ex- 
pect to see involved included 
the Daily Mirror who were re- 
sponsible for developing the 
very progreun {Fleet Street 
Publisher} that I have ttsedfor 
years to put this magazine 
together. /ncfctentoZiy my son 
has nouj storied using PCs at 
school and is adamant that 
there is rvthirTg on the PC 
avaiiabte to the home user 
that comes anywhere near 
Fleet Street Atari wins againl 
Writing this has been quits in- 
teresting so perhaps someone 
could come t^ wUh an article 
on unlikely alliances tnvolvifm 
corrtputers and companies 
that you would not expect to 
be involved? 

In regards to an ST section, 
as you know we itsed to have 
one but becaxise of the natune 
of the ST it was aJmosi al- 
ways restricted to software 
reviews. As tlie software dis- 
appeared so did t}ie coverage. 
I have rKithing against inciud- 
ing more coverage of the ST 
but it all depends on whether 
anybody wants to u^rite it As 
always contribtitlons of any 

Page 6's New iltarf User 



kind are heartdy welcomed. 
As to the pest of your ques- 
tions, Dooe, I twpe that other 
readers will help out newt time. 



GAME CARTRIDGES 

Sue Hasntpfrom Norwich 
dropped us a short r}ote 
which reads: "Just received 
my New Atari User niiigazme. 
What I am looking for f s Atari 
XE T,1dco game cartridges. 
Can you please help mc?" 
T / assume you mean the 
XE game system father than 
the XE computer but fear not 
they are exactly the same. AH 
ROM cartridges for the Atari 
run on the games sys tem as 
u*el( as the computers. There? 
are stfll a good rtttmber of car- 
trudges mound, mainly from 
Derek Fern at Micro Discounf 
(see adverts in back Issues) 
but I would strongly recom- 
mend that you go along to 
SAMS at the Bingley Hall in 
Stafford (see i\ews sectian) 
where you will almost certofn- 
ly be able to pick up some 
real baipatns. It will be well 
Lix?rth LvhUe to stock up. If you 
want to send to the USA for 
software check out the news 
page this issue for details of a 
company that has an enor- 
mous number of cartridges 
available, many of ufhich 
hone never beert available in 
t?;t5 counfry before. 




... AND FINALLY 

I was delighted to get a short 
note from Paui Lay ix'ho wrote 
sorrte of the very, best prog- 
rams publ^hed in Page 6 and 
whj once received a Pc^e 6 
readers award (presented as 
I remember at one of the big 
Atari shows). I had feared 
tfiat Paui hod tong departed 
into the PC uiorlcl arvd would 
not be Loith Its much longer 
but i am glad to have his con- 
tinuing support His letter has 
nothing to do with computers 
but- might help in satisfy the 
curious. 

"I was extremely pleased to 
see Issue 82 of NAU as some- 
one had said to me that ft 
had come to an end. Person- 
ally ] didn't believe It for an 
Instant: when NAU's time 
comes I am sure it'U go out 
with a special linal Isstie as 
opposed to simply disappear- 
log. Even though 1 havent 
done anything Atari for years,. 
NAU Is always an interesting 
read reminding me of all the 
fun [ had back on the old 
8-bil. 

This probably won't be the 
only letter you get on this 
subject as Fin sure you've 
now intrigued many NAU 
readers, especially those of 
us whose woodwork skills are 
pretty much limited to a cou- 
ple of dodgy book-ends made 
many years ago at school - 



exactly what Items do you 
make for the craft fairs? 
AsS'UinJng that you could 
send them through the mall, 
why not Include a leaflet with 
the next Issue of NAU offering 
them for sale?" 
T I am not sure hou; much 
crossoijer Interest there ivould 
be through the mag since 
what I do is Rither speciol- 
ised. If you have read the In- 
spirations box over the past 
few years you might have a 
clue as totci my Interests. 
Whot / maJce is items in fret- 
work (or scroll saw work for 
the Air^ricansJ depicting ths 
Ijfe and culture of the Natiae 
American Indian tribes. My 
fretwork is basicaihj the cut- 
ting cff finely detailed shapes 
in different types of ujood, 
ustr^ the colour and graii\ of 
the uxiods in differertt com- 
binations to enhance the fin- 
ished piece. It is far better to 
see it than read about it cuid I 
fiai^en't yetf^ured out houi to 
put together a catalagtte that 
sfwws exactly what 1 do (or at 
least one that, is not going to 
cast aboul a fiver a time to 
producelK We travel tdl 
around the country etsery 
loeekend to not only craft 
fairs but also things like 
County ShoujS and Tou;n 
shoujs and one or tuxs read- 
ers for ejc-recutlersj have 
tdready come up and $aid 
"are you the Les Ellingham 
UjhO'"'". ^anyone is interes- 

Pa0e 6's New Abort Lteer 



ted In haviI^g a look and cotn- 
ing £q say hello, J will gladly 
send a list ofaR the places 
we wdl be during the eomir^ 
year. 

Well there you have a goodly 
assortment of letters answer- 
tng oimosl: OjII the queries from 
the Issue 82 Mailhag, This is 
the sort of resportse we need 
to keep interest olive. Trouble 
is there are not quite SO rtl^ny 
cries for help this time to spUT 
ijou on to writing for the next 
Mailbag but I am sure you 
can think of new topics or 
contffUiattofi-'i on some of the 
therrvfs raised this time. Any- 
thing is u«?lcome, 
/ LLsouid like to thank ail cor- 
respondents this time but 
especially Terry ChamJberlain 
and Chfunlie Ayres who 
accompanied thslr letters with 
versions sojtued on to S-bit and. 
ST disks respecbuelyt it sure 
made my ujork a lot easier. 
Don't thinJc that you have to 
send a disk, however, the 
most important thing is that 
you write something so your 
thoughts can be shored with 
other readers. I'll be happy to 
type ft up providing that you 
can unite it up. 

Don'tforget to write tot 

MJHUBAG 

NKW iVXARI USSR 

P.O. BOX &4 

STAFFORD 

STie ITB 

17 



PROGRAMMING 



OBJET D'ART 



Joel Goodwin 
continues his 
series for the 
more advanced 
programmer 



2. Foundation 

One of the many 'privileges" of doing re- 
search at a university is that you get "eneoiir- 
aged" to attend kttufes gi^'cn by other people 
doing research. Normally these lectures are 
an excellent opportunity to catch up on some 
much-needed sleep, but oecafsfonally some- 
thing useful can be gleaned from a visiting 
speaker. Back tn 1995 [ attended a talk on 
'mathematics In Industry' with the hope of 
discovering what would be Important for net- 
ting a Job In the future. Tie guy who gave the 
talk sLarted to get quite excited about some- 
thing called Object-Oriented Programming' 
(OOP] and how essential It was for complex 
sofhvaie dCT.'cJopment. I had never heard of 
the term before and asked the speaker to 
elaborate on the subject. Bad move. The only 



thing 1 managed to understand was that It 
was about objects' which 1 had cunningly 
deduced already. So In the end I had to find 
out myself. Another prh^llege of doing re- 
search at university is the gneat access you 
have to a computing section of the university 
library. 

After a lot of reading, 1 now have a pretty 
good idea of what this OOP is all about and 
why it is so much better than sliced bread. 



THE MORNING AFTER 

Last issue, we looked at the four key princi- 
ples of OOP- The first of these was data ab- 
straction, which means we can develop our 
own types of variables (datatypes). Thai 
means, we need not deal with Just simple 
floating point numbers and strings, but more 
complicated vari^Ics Like database records or 
the status of enemy planes In a game. The 
individual pieces of data within a variable (or 
object) will be referred to as 'members'. For 
example, NAMK and ADDRESS might be two 
members in a database record. 

The second principle was encapsulation, 
which brought us from the ideas of datatype 
and variable to those of class and object. A 
class is a datatype coupled with subroutines 
relating to the class. Some of the data and 
subroutines can only be accessed by the class 



IS 



Page 6's New Aturt User 



subroutines. In this way, we divide up the 
claas Into 'public' and 'private' sections. 

The third principle was Inheritance. This 
allows us to derive a new cla^s from an old 
one. where the new class csan use all the data, 
and subroutines that were developed in the 
original class. The final principle was ptoly- 
morphlsm where derived classes can replace 
an Inheiited subjioutine with a different one. 
In this way, different derived classes will 
have, to all intents and purposes, a common 
subroutine which can behave entirely diffe- 
rently for each class, TTii.s Improves the flexi- 
bilily of code when reused In later programs, 
as explained last issue. (Polymorphism Is an 
important aspect of OOP which we shall re- 
turn to next issue,] 

However, there are no languages for the S-bit 
Atari which support OOP techniques. Plan- 
ning a program with an OOP-Uke structure 
and adapting it to your chosen language is 
the best way lo proceed .. . unless you have a 
macro assembler for machine language pro- 
jects. This issue we'll look at how we can 
construct OOP support using macros in 
MAC/S5. 



THE GENERAL IDEA 

flow would a computer handle storage and 
access of object data? Well, it wotdd probably 
work out how many bytes arc needed to store 
a typical object and then, with this informa- 
tion, reserve the memory for as many objects 
as the main program requires. Whcnea'er the 
program wanted to access a member of a 
particular object, the computer would have to 
look at the class structure as it would need to 
find out where this member is located within 
the object data. To make tliis clearer, consid- 
er a simple POSniON class, in a POSHION 
object, we have PX and PY members. Each 
member will be one byte long, so a POSiriQN 



object will need two bytes storage space. The 
struetune could be summEijiscd by the fol- 
lowing. 

POSITION = 2 jObiect (engtfi 

PX =0 ; Index for PX member 

PY =1 ; Index for PY member 

So PX and FY are Indices for members within 
a POSmON object We could reserve spaces 
for POSITION objects POSI, POS2 and POSQ 
by using this piece of code: 

POSI '='+POStTION 
POS2 *=*+POSITION 
POSQ *=-+POSITION 

Then we could read and write to these POSI- 
TION objects. 

LDA #00 

STA POSl+PX ; Initialise POSI 

STTA POSi+PY 

STA POS2+PX :and POS2 

STA POS2+PY 

LDA POS94PX iGel POSQ member PX 

STA POSQ+PY ; Store In POSQ member PY 

This is great if we know in advance what 
objects we wish to manipulate. However, this 
is no good If wc Want to generate a subroutine 
which can deal witli any POSITION object We 
can use tndirect Indexing lo solve this prob- 
lem The following piece of code vTiit initialise 
the POSITION object pointed to by the zero 
page ^tctor P0S\'T:C. 



INIT LDA #S00 
LDY *PX 



;Aceumulator is zero 
;Y- register points to 
inember PX 

STA (POSVEC),Y 

IJTf #PY jY-register points to 

member PY 

STA (POSVEC)Y 

RTS 

The ideas presented here can be formalised 
to cater for any class. This is where the mac- 
ros come in, 



Page 6's Nein Atari User 



19 





.IF%lk>1 


I CLASS SYSTEM FOR lAACmS 


.ERROR "USE 1 PAJ^METER" 


; By Joel Goodwin 11-1-97 


.ELSE 


■ „ 


*= *+%1 


I OBJECT must b* daflnsd » ZP 


.ENDIF 




.EN DM 


.IF .NOT .DtF OBJECT 


; 


.ERROR "OBJECT not defined" 


.MACRO CLASS 


.END 


.IF%D*0.OR%ft*S 


.ENDIF 


.ERROR "USE 1 OR 2 PARAMETERS" 


.(F OBJECT>$FE 


.ELSE , 


.ERROR "OBJECT not ZP vctor" 


.IF %0=1 


.END 


'= V%1 


,ENOIF 


.ELSE 




*x •+%1*%2 


; NEWCLASS 


.ENDIF 


; sun of class dafltiitfon 


.ENDfcF 




.ENOM 


.MACRO NEWCLASS 




.IF%0<>0 


;OGET 


.ERROR "USE NO PARAMETERS" 


Git A from abj«tt data 


.ENDIF 




@@CUfiPC.= * 


.MACRO OGET 


•=o 


.IF%0>1 


.EN DM 


.ERROR "U5E 1 Ofl NO PARAMETERS" 




.ELSE 


] ENDCLASS 


JF%0=1 


; End ot class deflNtion 


JF%13-2S5 




IRROn "DATA OUTSIDE 2a BYTE RANGE" 


.MACRO ENDCLASS 


.ELSE 


.IF%0<>0 


LDY #%1 


ERROR "USE NO PARAMETERS" 


.ENDIF 


.ENDIF 


.ENDIF 


*= @@CURPC 


LDA (OBJECT),¥ 


.EN DM 


.ENDIF 




.EN DM 


1 BYTE, DBVTE, BYTES, CLASS 




; R«£«rv« memory 


OPUT 




Put A Into object data 


.MACRO BYTE 




.IF%0<>0 


.MACRO OPUT 


.ERROR "USE NO PARAMETERS" 


.IF %0>1 


.ENDIF 


.ERROR "USE 1 OR NO PARAMETERS" 


•=*+1 


.ELSE 


.ENDM 


,|F %0=1 


f 


.IF %1>2SS 


MACRO DBYTi 


■ERROR "DATA OUTSIDE 2» BYTE RANGE' 


.tF%0<>0 


.ELSE 


.ERROR "USE NO PARAMETERS" 


LDY #%1 


.ENDIF 


.ENDIF 


•rva 


.ENDIF 


.EN DM 


STA {OBJECT),Y 


T 


.ENDIF 


.MACRO BYTES 


.EN DM 



20 



Listing l 

Page 6's Neto Atari Oser 



THE CLASS SYSTEM 

Listing 1, OBJECTS, M65, Is the MAC/65 
code fora clasi a maniigtrrtcnt system. In the 
listing eight macros are defined: NEWCLASS, 
BYTE, BYTES. DBYTE. ENDCLASS. CLASS, 
OPUT and OGET. You need to do three things 
to use the macros in a MAC/65 listing. First- 
ly, you muat att the label OBJECT, at the 
start of your listing;, to a zero page location 
which can be used as a vector to point tn 
objecta in mcniory (remember, ^lectors are two 
bytes). Secondly, a '.INCLUDE 
#D:OBJECl^.M65' InstrucUon must follow 
the definition of OBJECT; whenever assemb- 
ling your program, OBJECTS. M65 must be 
stored on the disk in drive 1. Thirdly, your 
program must NOT use the label ©©CURTC. 

Let us examine the macros which are used 
to create a class. 

NEWCLASS 

This denotes the beginning of a ctas:^ defini- 
tion. 

ENDCLASS 

This denotes the end of a. class definition. It 
should be labelkd with tJie clsiss name, Ihe 
laljel wUl be equal to the number of b^tcs an 

object of the class takes up In menwry. 

BYTE 

Within a class definition, (his is used to cre- 
ate a member whinh is one byte long. It 
shotild be labelled with the member name. 

DBVTE 

As BYTE, but die member is two bytes long. It 

should be labelled ulth the number name. 

BYTES numbyt 

Aa BYTE, but tlie member Is 'nuinbyt' bytes 
long. It should be labelled with the mcmbcr 
name. 

Using these macros, the POSITION class can 
be defined more rlearlv- 



NEWCLASS ; Start of a new class 

PX BYTE ;PX member 

FY BYTE :PY member 

POSmON ENDCLASS ;End of class, named 

PosmoN 

The final reault ia exactly the same, POSI- 
TION has the value 2 and PX and PY have 
been defined similarly. Now we proceed to the 
macros with which we manipulate objects, 

CLASS cname[,numobj} 

This will reserve memory for an object of the 
class cname'. If numobj' Is specifltd then 
memory for 'numobj" objccLs ts resert'ed in- 
stead of Just one, 

OGET [mname] 

This macro is meant In be used as part of the 
program code. Upon execution. It will load the 
accumulator with the value of the member 
'mname' of the object currently spectHed by 
OI3JECT. If no 'mnamc' is specified, then the 
last member specified by an OGET/OPUT Is 
used (provided the Y-lndex register hias not 
been altereai, see later). 

OPUT [mname] 

'iTils macro Js meant to be used as part of the 
program code. Upjon execution. It will store 
the accumulator in the member 'mname' of 
the object currently spceSfied by OBJECT. If 
no "mname' is gtvcn, then the last member 
specified by an OCETF/OPUT Is used (provided 
the Y-lndcx register has not been altered, see 
latci^. 

We can continue to rewrite the POSITION 
example with these macros. First of all. we 
reserve memory for the POSITION objects 
POSl. POS2 and POSg. 

POS1 CLASS POSITION 
POS2 CL^SS POSITION 
POSQ CLASS POSITION 

The piece of code where we set values in 
POSl, P0S2 and POSQ is unchanged. This Js 



Page 6's New Atari User 



21 



the most efUcIent way to manipulate specific 
objects; use the address of 'objeet+member' 
{e.g. POS2+PX]. Ifa member Is longer than 
one byte, then add on a further niunber to 
refer to which byte you wish to access (e,g, if 
PX was actually two bytes loitg, we could 
access POS2+PX for the first byte imd 
POS2+PX+1 for the second byte}. 
The last POSITION code example can make 
use of the new macros. It can be rewritten in 
the following way. 

INIT 



LDA 


#$00 


;Accurriulator is zsm 


OPUT 


PX 


;StorB zera in PX 


OPUT 


py 


;Stora zero in PY 


RTS 







Before calling INIT, the address of the object 
to be initialised should be stored In the vector 
OBJECT. 



SUBTLETIES 

OGET and OPUT select a. particular member 
within an object by using the Y-index register. 
The one drawback to this is that you cannot 
use OGET/OPUT with a class that needs over 
256 bytes to store an object, because the 
Y-index register can only take values from 
to 2BS, The advantages of using the Y index 
register means faster access and a minor 
capacity for optiniisatlon - adjacent OGETT/ 
OPUT calls can reuse the current value of the 
Y'lndex register For example; 

QGET PX 

CLC 

ADC #$04 

OPUT ;Add 4 to PX 

This will take the PX member from the object 
pointed to by OBJECT, add 4 lo it. and store 
this value back In the PX member, We did not 
have to specify PX the second time. However, 
if we modify the Y-indcx register between 

22 



these calls, we cannot do this. 



OGET PX 
TAY 

iNY 
TYA 

OPUT 



;We want to add 1 
:toPX 



This example Is ivrong because wc have eU- 
tcred the Y-index register. The OPUT must 
specify the PX member again, to set the Y- 
Index register to the correct vahje. 

1f wc wish Lo create an array of objects, we 
can use the CLASS macro to ncscrt.'c enough 
memory for as many as we want. For example 
if I wanted 50 POSITION objects for 50 mons- 
ters In a game. T could use the following line: 

MONSTERS CLASS POSiTlON,50 

One other point must be discus&ed before we 
go on to encapsulation, You may be tempted 
to Use... 

INIT LDA #$00 
OPUT PX 
iNY 
OPUT 

HTS 

. . .which Is little more efficient than Uie earlier 
INIT BubrouUne. After all the PY member is 
Just one byte from the PX member. Tills is a 
bad idea. If, later, the class was modified so 
that PX and PY were not even next to each 
other, this piece of code would not work any 
more. Always use tlie ineraber nam.e - ne^-er 
use a short-cut as it makes assumptions of 
the atructure] There are two valid exceptions 
to this rule. 
If we had defined POSITION using DBYTEs,.. 

NEWGLA.SS 
PX DBVTE 

PY DBYTE 

POSiTtON ENDCUVSS 

...then because each member is mone ttian one 
byte long then we could legitimately consider 



Page 6's New Atari User 



PX and PX+ 1 as well as PY and PY+ 1 , In this 
case, there would be nothing incorrect in 
using INY to access the next byte in an 
OGETr/OPUT sequence. 



OGET 


PX 


STA 


TEMPPX 


iNY 




OGET 




STA 


TEMPPX+1 



You must remember not to modily the Y- 
Index register in any other way between two 
OCErryoPUr instructions. 

The other case where altering the Y-lndcx 
register directly is valid occurs when a sub- 
routine is manipulating a whole object in one 
go, such as In initialising, If we had a class 
called LARGE then the following subroutine 
would initialise a LARGE object' 



INITLARG 


LDA 
TAY 


#$00 


ILO 


OPUT 
INY 






CMP 


#LARGE 




BNE 


iLO 




RTS 





Here wc run the Y-indcx register frum to 
LARGE- 1 and zero every byte in the chosen 
LARGE objccL 



ENCAPSULATION 
IN MAC/65 

We have considered only the data aspect of 
classes; how can we implement subroutine 
encapsulation? Tliere is no concrete method 
with which to achic\'c this. The cioscst wc can 

get Is tO' Isolate the class subroutines in 
another file. In fact, a 'class file' should be 
developed which includes both the class de- 
finition and accompanying subroutines. This 



encourages the independence of the class im- 
plementation by dli'orclng It from the program 
It was originally intended to support. 

Normally^ a cIeiss submmtinc will be desig- 
ned to operate on a general object. It Is re- 
commended that the objects are passed to 
class subroutines through OBJECT (that Is 
what OBJECT was designed for, after all), just 
as in the earlier INIT example for the POSI- 
TION class. This common Interface also prom- 
otes encapsulation. This is not encapsulation 
in the true sense of the word because class 
subroutines could stlU be used, mistakenly, 
for objects of another class or worse, without 
an object at all. In an OOP lang\iage such 
mistakes are usually picked up by a compiler. 

Wc have still not addressed the olhcr aspect 
of encapsulations declaring public and private 
members of the class, MAC /65 has a very 
simple facility with which we can accomplish 
this. When a label begins with a question 
mark, it automatjcally declares that label as 
being 'local', llils means that if w/e sandv-lch 
a block of code bclwfccn two .LOCAL directives 
then all local labels used inside that block do 
not exist outside of it, Tlierefore if we always 
surround a class file with .LOCAL directives, 
all local labels can be considered to refer to 
private members and subroutines. An exam- 
ple will make this clearer. Suppose wc have a 
BOX class. A BOX object contains a number 
?NUM!BER which can only be set using the 
BOXSETT subroutine and looked at using the 
BOXIXiOK subroutine. The BOX class file is 
as follows. 





.LOCAL 




NEWCLASS 


?NUMBER 


BYTE 


BOX 


ENDCLASS 


BOX SET 


OPUT ?NUMBER 




RTS 


BOXLOOK 


OGErr 7NU1WBER 




v<rs 




.LOCAL 



Page G's JVclu Atari User 



23 



Tifie only way to access the number in the 
box Is to call BOXSETand BOXLOOK, Out- 
side of the class file, the label ?NUMBER does 
not exist and cannot be used. Of course, we 
could cheat because each BOX object onfy 
contains one byte - that byte must be where 
the number Is held. However, tf we are going 
to cheat in such a way, tlien there Is no point 
going down an objept-oricritcd road In the 
first place. 

This example oitly demonstrates private 
data. We could just as easily have oonstrue- 
ted an example with a private subroutine. All 
WE have to do Is start a subroutine's labeJ 
with a ■?' and the subroutine Is then privuLe, 
Don't forget to place .LOCAL dfTect.l'uTes at the 
start and end of the class file. 



THE FLAK CLASS 

Now we'll look at a real class which will be 
developed using OBJECTS.M65 - tlie FLAK 
class. A FLAK object will represent a single 
graphics mode character which will move 
around the screen. Developing a new class 
structi.ire Is usually a lot of hard work as it is 
important to get It right. There is plenty of 
literature on how to develop classes, but for 
our purposes we will just tiptoe briefly 
through the design of the FLAK class. The 
appmaeh here Is to decide first what sub- 
routincH are neoessaiy by considering what a 
FIAK object is meant to do. Once the sub- 
rou tinea have been cliosen. we then look at 
what data is necessary to supporil them. 

Wc will need an Initialisation subroutine 
INIT; piactjcally every class has an initialisa- 
tion subroutine. We will also need to Jiianlfesl, 
an object on the screen so PLOT and ERASE 
subrou Ones will be ncccssajy. Botli of tliese 
subroutines will need to calculate where. In 
the screen memoty, an object is displayed. Wc 
will use a private subroutine 7CALC to do 

24 



this. The final subroutine Is MOVE which will 
update an object's position. We wiU also per- 
mit an object to move at a variety of speeds. 
To aceompllsh this. MOV^ wlU only alter an 
object's position if MOVE has been called 
enough times, the exact number depending 
on what speed Is specified. 

Now we need to ascertain what data Is con- 
tained by a FLAK object. Clearly wc vrill need 
XPOS, YPOS and SPEED members. If SPEED 
is set to ZETTJ then an object will change posi- 
tion every time MOVE is called. The direcOon 
of a FLAK object will be given by DIR; will 
mean north. 1 north -cast, 2 east and so on 
Up to 7 for north-west. If DIR is given the 
value 255, the object will be considered to be 
stationary. Wc will want to specify what text 
character represents the FLAK object, so wc 
will need another data member called CHAR. 
All of the members so far are public. iTieiTe Is 
one private data member called 7COUNT. 
This wUl be used by the MOVE subroutine to 
determine whether It Is time to alter an ob- 
ject's position or not. 

The FLAK class Is summarised in figure 1 . 
The class Implementation is given by listing 2. 
A closer e Kami nation of this listing will re\'eal 
class subroutine data is declared private (e.g. 
7CALTMP) to keep the internal class mechan- 
isms hidden from a main program. Alto 
?CALC needs to pass in forma Uon to PLOT 
and ERASE, SO a zero page vector ZPFLAK is 
used. This vector must be specified by the 
main program; this is to avoid clashes with 
any other zxiro page usage. There is also 
another Input to the cla-ss subrou tines^ the 
?CA1jC subroutine uses the screen memory 
address at locations S8 and 89 to locate the 
screen memory. 



BREAK FOR COFFEE 



If a class is written well and supported by 







^ 








STA (OBJECT),Y;C«rrv set 








lmpl«m«ntation of ■ 




BCC ?MF ;m«ans move 








FLAK ciasa 


7MV0 


OGET DIR ;Dd nctusl move 








By Jo«J Goodwin 11-1-97 




Bl«( 7MF ;255=no fnove 








_. — ™ 




TAX 








ZPFLAK must b* defined as ZP 




CLC 








Uses 8G/89 for scrn mem sddr 




OGET XPOS 
ADC IMVXTASLE.X 


j 


1 


.LOCAL 




CMP«2&5 




1 


.IF .NOT .DEF ZPFLAK 




BNEtMVl 






.ERROR "ZPFLAK hot defintd" 




LDA #39 ;^l*ft overshoot 






.END 


7MV1 


CMP #40 






.ENDIF 




BCC7MV2 






JFZPFLAK>tFE 




LDA m ;tiQht ouwrshoot 






.ERROR "ZPFLAK not ZP vector" 


7MV2 


OPUT 






.END 




CLC 






.ENDIF 




OGET YPOS 










ADC ?MV¥TABLE,X 


1 




; FLAK class definition 




C»ftP «255 
BNE 7MV3 


t 




NEWCU^SS 




LDA M23 ;up overshoot 






XPOS BYTE 


?MV3 


CMP #24 






YPOS BYTE 




BCC ?MV4 






DIR BYTE 




LDA 40 ;down overshoot 






CHAR BYT£ 


7MV4 


OPUT 






SPEED BYTE 


?MF 


RTS 






7C0UNT BYTE 


7MVXTABLE .BYTE 0,1, 1,1, 0,-1 ,-1.-1 






FLAK ENDCLASS 


7MVVTABLE .BYTE -1, 1,0,1. 1,1.0,-1 








INIT subroutine 


; ?CALC 


subroutine J 








Initial ise^obj set 


; Ca kiilata screen memory pos. 1 






INtT LDY #FLAK-1 ;Laat byt. 


?CALC 


LDA#Q 






LDA«0 




STA ZPFLAK+1 




; 


?m ST A (OSJECT},Y ;Store zero 




OGET YPOS 






DEY 




ASL A 






epL?io 




ASIA 






LDA#$FF 




ASL A 






OPUT DIR ;Null diracton 




STA 7CALTMP ;sava ¥'8 






RTS 




ASL A 

ROi ZPFLAK+^ 






; PLOT subroutine 




ASL A 






; Plots FLAK object to screen 




ROL ZPFLAK+1 iY*32: 










CLC 






PLOT JSR ?CALC ;Piot where? 




ADC 7CALTMP ;add Y*8 






OGET CHAR ;Gei char 




STA ZPFLAK 






LDY#0 




LDA ZPFLAK+1 






STA {ZPPLAK),Y;..,»nd plot 




ADC*J 






RTS 




STA ZPFLAK+1 ;Y-40 










CLC 






■ ERASE 5uh routine 




OGET XPOS ;addX 






; Erases FLAK object from screen 




ADC ZPFLAK 
STA ZPFLAK 






ERASE JSR ?CALC ;Eras8 rthBTS^ 




LDA#0 






LDA#0 




ADC ZPFLAK+1 






TAV 




STA ZPFLAK+1 ;X+V'40 






STA (2PFLAK),Y ; Erased 




CLC 






RTS 




LDA ZPFLAK 
ADC8S 






; MOVE subrou tins 




STA ZPFLAK 






; Update object's position 




LDA ZPFLAK+1 
ADCS9 






MOVE OGET SPEED ;Zero speed 




STA ZPFLAK+1 ;SCRN+X+Y'40 






BEQ ?MVO ;forces move 




RTS 






LDY #? COUNT ; Add speed 


7CALTMPBYTE | 






CLC ;to counter 


j 








ADC(OBJECT),Y 




LOCAL 1 





Page 6's New Atari User 



Page 6's Neuj Atari User 



25 



DISK BONUS 




by Jason Kendall 



The concept af MfTE is simple, to push the vajloiis boulders into the BDU (Boulder Disposal 
Unit]. In practice this proves difficult as boulders tend to get pushed against each other or 
the outer walls. Fortunately there are two modes of play - 'normal' and 'near^'. Nearly mode 
allows you to miss out 1 boulder on each screen - recommendedl 

There are IS areas to complete. A secret warp menu allows you to start from any area, 
try pressing a combination of the console keysl Pressing Fire terminates your go if you get 
stuck, and believe me you will. 

You start with 3 lli-cs. You score 10 points x area for each boulder, with a bonus of 100 
X area on completion. If you complete area 18 your entire score is doubled. Extra men are 
gained at 4000 and 8000 points. 

'ITie other special feature of this game is a fully saveable high-score table. Even if you're 
not Interested in tlie game itself, this is a good subroutine that you may want to use vvlth 
other programs. The variable names are all self explanatory. 

THERE ABE SEVERAL OTHER BONUS PROGRAMS ON THIS JSSlffi'S DISK! 



This program, ^th others,, is the BONUS on this issue's disk^ if i/ou are not a 
dtsk subscriber you can stilt obtain a copy f(^ £2,SO from NEW ATARI USER, P.O. 
BOX 54, STAFTOHD, ST 16 1TB, Pilose make cheques payable to PAGE 6 PUB- 
USHINQ ar order by teleph(*ne utith tfonr Visa or Mastercard on 017S5 241153 



good documentation, a progranimer wishing 
to use the class should NEVER have to look 
at the class flk. The only 
contact a programmer 
should have with the class 
is through public data and 
subroutines. To highlight 
this point, next issue we 
will look at a program 
using the FLAK class. By 
that time you will, hopeful- 
ly, be unfamiliar with the 
class file agjaln and vrtll 
have to approach the class 
a? an outsider. 

I hope you'll join me next 
Issue for ihc final leg of our 
Journey Into object-oriented 
pnogranimlng. 



ITT Air 


Public 


Private 


XPOS 


7C0UNT ' 


YFOS 


?CALC subroutine 


DIR 




CHAR 




SPEED 




INIT subroutine 




PLOT subroutine 




ERASE subroutine 




MOVE subroutine 





26 



Figure 1 - The FLAK class 

Page 6's Neto AtAri User 



PROGRAMMING 




LISTINGS PRINTER 



A neat utility for 
Epson printer owners 
by David Sargeant 



calculation program would still take a fair^ 
long time to execute, but it would need to be 
done only once to set up the code fUe. 



THB PROGRAMS 



Fellow Atarlans who use Epson- com- 
patible prjntens soon become aware 
that Basic program listings are not 
always printed properly. Graphics characters 
are interpreted as control codes and inverse 
text is printed In italics. The reason for this is 
the printer uses its own Intenr^al character 
set. which is difl'crcnt to the Atari's ROM- 
based one, 

'llie printer's manual lias a section on its Dot 
Graphic capabiliLfcs showing that a graphic 
character can be printed from a pattern of 
dots stored In the printer's memory. It would 
seem possible to use the computer's internal 
character set for Dot Graphic codes which 
would enable the printer to print the desired 
characters. 

However, this would not work for two 
reasons, Rrstiy. in the bitmap of an Atari 
character, the 8 bytes represent rows, where- 
as the printer requires tlie bytes to represent 
columns. Secondly, the routine that actually 
prints the prograin listing would need the Dot 
Graphic codes to be in ASCil sequence, not 
Internal Character Code sequence as they are 
In the computers ROM set. 
Therefore, a program would firstly have to 
calculate the necessary Dot Graphic codes 
using the Atari's character set as a basis 
before it could print tlie listings that the user 
required. These two processes would take a 
long time lo execute so a better method Would 
be to put them into sepajate programs. Tlie 

Page 6's New Atari Uaer 



THE CONVERTER - Dot Graphic codes 
arc calculated for all 256 characters (llie first 
128 in 4 blocks because of the ASCIi/ICC 
problenil and are stored in a separate file for 
access later by the Listings Printer. 

USTINGS PRINTER - After the Dot 
Graphic codes are read Into the computer you 
arc prompted to type the name of the file you 
want printed. At liiis stage you can also press 
the Return key to get a directory listed to the 
screen. When you have typed a llle name the 
contents of this file are read into the Input 
buffer. Starling at the beginning of the bulicr. 
the first byte Is checked to see If It Is a 
printable character, if It Is the relevant Dot 
Graphic codes are moved to the output bufTcr 
to formj;it the first line. If It is the End-of-Llne 
character the bytes In the output buffer are 
dumped to the printer and the next line Is 
begun, This process continues until all the 
bytes in the input buffer have been used. You 
are then asked if you want to print another 
listing. Press Y or N depending on your needs. 
At any stage you can also press the Break ke>' 
to abort the program. 



THE LISTINGS 

Th« varioxis programs are included on 
this issue's dish, ready to rtiti. A prin- 
ted copy 19 fluailofcle on request, see 
inside bdck cover Jor details. 



27 




it's 



The TIPSTER SILICON 

DREAMS 



Another of James Mathrtck's ad^oenture 
exploraiions this time, although tn one or 
two places he admits that he is stuck, 
StUl the info might help you to get further 
tn these adventures and maybe you 
know how to get out of the places that 
are too hard far Jcmws? 



SNOWBALL 

I find this adventure somewhat tedious, taut 
then I've not got loo far. I've Jeft the cofiin 
(PULL LEVER) and climbed through numer- 
ous other mortuaries (Go to the control panel, 
press 3 buttons, return, climb on to the cof- 
fin, and go through trapdoor ..,. each time!) 
,.,, remember to keep a closed door between 
you and the Nlghttngales, and to keep still 
when they're around, though, Yvc continued 
in this fashion until I can go no furtl:ier up, 
found the lift, and gone up to the black level. 
This appears to be the sanne floor as the one 
you get to by climbing up the elevator shaft 
and undoing the trapdoor Wiith the adjustable 
spanner (found at the bottom of the shaft in a 
iMutbux), although there could be a bug In the 
panscr, as the text mentions a door and a 
trapdoor and 1 could be opening eltlier. 
However, wandering around the black level 
has not helped me - I've gone around the 
toroidal walkway, and the transpex tubes 
above the walkway, and I have kicked the 
fragile tube to be sucked out into space b-efore 
dying from suflbr^Mon lalthough in reality 
you would Implode and explode before that 
happened!). I know you may have to find a 
stacker lift, as the game told me I needed one 
to move a coffin with a cfewmember inside. 



Has tJila anything to do with the complex: 
revl^'al machinery perhaps? 
That's all T have on this one. if you can help 
further please do as 1 would hate to see an 
adventure go to waste through pure llloglc- 



RETURN TO EDEN 

This i3 the best of the Trilo^ ao far, as I have 
made It into the city and onto the surface, 
altliough I have beciome stuck with the rail- 
way system. Using the emergency cord in the 
train. I have been able to examiinc every 
station; 

DREAM PARK STATION - is where you 
start. You can go UP at this stalion to get 
back into the tunnels through the grille (It is a 
one-way grille - remind you of Zork? Don't 
waste your time on it this tJmel), 

HABIHOME STATION - 1 once found Grid- 
pin + Clone Denta! stylists' on level 13 but I 
froze with fear when 1 tried to enter it and ft 
has disappeared since, and J cannot find it 
again. I have tried all the obvious levels ... 13, 
7, 099, 666. all the 100s and Level 9, but I 
cant find anything but hablhomes. and the 
train ttckel is one-way. fl'here is a travelpaiis 
somewhere In the game - I'll espkln later) 

CITY HALL STATION - Only home owner:* 

are allowed in. but! can't see where to buy a 
habihome, though. 



n 

'Wandering through BulferfUss 

I I 

C^M..u«. BBdd« Bsside 

Whispering.^ Slr<3^oglldef^ Huge ^ 

hflotehlll 

I I 

Wandering on Hie Plain ^— 

U 



r 

/midst 



' Blue Grass 




To lisfidt 

MoUM 



Strolling 
Ih rough 
Blue Gross Si^t€s(ukr 



qo OUT Control in Cup>board 

"Beside ' Room cornpass 






Padded 
Room 



Inside 

Huge 

MolehitI 

up 

In Steep 
Tunnel 



Bumt 
•Plain 



Blasted in Ashes In Ashes 

Plain #1 §2 



Blasted 
Heath 



Blocked 
Passage 



In Network -Imnrtense 

of Earthy Domed 
' — " Passages Cave 



U 



I 



Comfortable 
Cave 



. Tunnel 
June Hon 



Scrabbling 

on loose 

Eorth 

|U 



. In Ashes 
#3 

U 

. Tunnel 
End 



.Blocked 
Tunnel 



TitH 



Return to 
Eden 



'To 
In Uie 

:^fks *J 

UNKNOWN STATION - Only the Mayor is 
allowed pasL Any Ideas? 
I am also mystified by the be\'omat in the 
little house on the prairtc. Getting in is easy if 
you like nukes, but facinji; a bcvomat with a 
slot Is much more difficult, PUT CARD IN 
SLOT, the ob\rious suggestion, doesn't 'ivork- 
Jn this area of the game, if you DROP or PUT 
anything, a dumpy drold Udles it away and 
you lose tlie object. Anyway, enough of my 
problems, on with the tips. 

** MAJOR CUTCH ** Should you type 
SAY ALL the program will helpfully list c\'ery' 
object in the jijame. Whotips, IjCX'cI 9! (There's 
a better one later though!) The objects Include 
Pepsy Koala and a Bubble Helmet which fea- 
tures in Worm In Paradise as well. In fact, 
this stage of the game has an immense feeling 
of dcja vn if you have played Worm, 



Survive at the start by taking the compass, 
a Celger counter (try IN while In the straLog- 
lider) emd wearing the radsult. Find a large 
molehill, and DIG it. Go underground and 
find a comfortable cave. Sleep. Aftjer the blast 
find the shovel, dig whilst 'scrabbling on loose 
earth'. Go up. after wailing when the counter 
screams. 

Keep going east Into the main g^mc, but 
remove the radsuit. or the animals will attack 
you. Stay sttll when the heUcopter passes, 
and if the parrot pinchc-s anything, type 
oops which will take you back to your last 
location. 'This gets boring but you will keep all 
your inventory. 

You will need to EAT a PIT.L to keep you from 
dying from radiation sickness (and get you 
150 points!). It Is on a riverbank, and I've got 
a feeling you have lo cross water to get to It, 



28 



Page 6's Nem Atari User 



Page Cs New Atari User 



29 



T^ 



To 
\ 

On _ 
River 8onk 



Main 

Norti Bonk 
of River 



I I 

■low fflveriilear 



To 
In 'Denst 



C Below nivcT i^eui 
North&ank NorthBar^k"^ liffla Isia nd -^ 
* J I* * |_ — I • 



I* 



COn'ths Near CTjust Upslream 

River -'^— South Bank*l*om Er>oriT3cus 



wffi? 



Waterfall io@ 



J, 



On 5<>9g/ c>n 

RIvsf Boric ^Woodland Cliff Top 



To 
'Biasttd 
■Jkaih 


Wefl 

" — ^ Trodden — 

Pattt 


PleoKinf 
Woodland - 


Grove of 

Young 

Saplings 

stem 




Busht 

Country 

seed 

KeyiTone 

storie/rtjiit 


Bend in 

Forest l^thi 

bean 








\ 


*. Green 
^ Sw( 


m 

ird ■ 



then go DOWN, Don't worry - you can 
get back Up by getting a vegetable bal- 
Iqoti later, but don't forget the pgia- 
shoot, or you can't get back down. 
The pltiiie twigs and cherry stalk will 
allow you to fashion a Arum whir:h. 
when played, will convince an ant 
airmy you are their leader - they will 
follow you to the fence, which tliey 
will trample down for you. The bug's 
humming v^-ltl confuse the sensors 
on the fence, if the bug Is tn your pos- 
session. The chameleon cloak will make 
you Invisible - useful for passing the 
watch tower, 'llie blue beny can be 
used to glue: the branch to the orJier 
branches to cross across the treo tops, 
but [ think there's a weight limit. The 
vine I can't remember about, but I 
think you tie It to a tree by the woodpile 
in order to climb tl. The lift pjatfonm 
syaLcm Is very clever. I remember. 
There are two lifts, and \^'elghts (e.g. 

stone fruit is useful) arc 
In used on each In order ts^ 

Houseplant hoi st you to different 

Jishjungns 



Easy - use the tuber and stem^ as a boat and 
paddle., To get past the Ijcvialhan, feed it the 
fish fungus (on the green swatd, Ilie Oulja 
bird needs to eat the pea (type GIST PEA] to 
lay an egg, which you plant to grow into a 
houseplant ... go INslde It). 

I thougtit that the geranium would aUow you 
to regenerate should you die but that is not 
correct, so 1 don't know what It is for. Eating 
the bean makes you feel stronger, but its 
purpose Is unknown. The fig leaf, 1 assume. Is 
for wearing. The stone fruit Is used for Weight 
when STAT miming under a river later on |[you 
will need tlie (suck)seed to breather undenva- 
terj. The teiescope is only for seeing where 
you are going, 'Hie wishbone is used in con- 
Junction with an elastic band to catapult a 
cheiry (actually a grenade - NE\TR drop it!) 
and clear an otherwise Impassable minefield. 

The Maize maze Is pointless - it docs go in 
circles ... leave it alone. 

The foxgloves, when worn allow you to carry 
a cold leaf later, Sijueezc the sodden log to 
grow? the parched l>ulb Into a (para)shoot, 

30 Page Gs New Atari User 



levels in the trees. I 

can't remember the exact combination of 
moves, but I'll leave that to you to work out ,., 
that's t>ie fun bit - hunest[ Sooner or later 
you'll arrive at a beach - EK>NT remove your 
cloaltyet! Wait for the cleaner robot tn come, 
then wait for it to empty Its load, the GETT ON 
It, and ride In relative safety (from the sea- 
weed] to tbe other end of the beach. Get off 
the robot before it dumps its load, otherwise 
you could get washed back again. You ha\^ to 
be careful when entering tlie com field 
(DONT wait on the beach for the wccdert)* 
otherwise something nastv happens. You 
need to wait for aweedlbot or some robot on 
the beach, then get on it to get a SEife ride to 
the river - get olTat this point. 
Swimming the river I have explained, and 
you should soon find yourself with a credit 
card in a river tuniiel. Watch out for the 
yobbos. Go and see Graunch - his offer of 
gambling is good, especially if you cheat, and 
so here are the answers to hiii riddles; 



In 
Dense _ 
Jurtgle 

I 
Shade of _ 
Great Trees 



Beside 
. Quagnnire. 

1 

_ Luxuriant . 
UrKlergrowth 



I I 



Cathedral 



teofFile 

tint ctrimf 



Feeling 

Claustro' . 

phobic 

I 

In 
Woodpile 



; Tree hero ui 
^_ Fen land 

\ cfoak 

Vins 

- Soft Earth 
Amidsf 
Tree Roots 

Squeezing 

_ Through 

Forest 

I 

Underneath 

Cheslrvut 

Tree 



Edge 
of ForestJlL* 

fence §■ 



Easfem 
Edge of "I 
Forest 



C(taT Lund 

Ck^T Lund 



TCttferm 



Ttatfarm 



To 1*1 Qiunt 



Slarvding on 
Bent Boughs 



Halfway up 
The Giont — 
Tree 

I 
In Gtant 
Redwood — 
Tree 



Tmnic 
Road — 



In 
heartwood 

bug 

I 

In &ianl 

-Redwood 

Tree 



/ 



Amidst 

Aerfal 

Roots 

I 



On 

Trunk 



iood 



Am 



North 
Plofform 



1) 



Standing on 
Bent Boyghs 



dst 



n 



1 Maize 
•— Mare 1 



To 
On ifw 



To 

Maize 

^aze3 



tVtaize — I 

Maze 3., — f 

I 

IVIaIze — I 
~ Male 44 — I 

1 

To 



naize 
Maze 1 



To 



MAIZE 
MAZE 



Tangled 
Twigs 



Maize 



^— Z) Shiade of Great Trees 
^— 3) In Treetops 



Clinging to s Platform 
Topmost ^1 — East of 
Branches | ftranchline 

I cf tarry iitiASi 





Genie in the box ... 


COMPUTER 


What goes on four feet ... 
Rich man wants it ... 
Our blood is cold ... 


MAN 
NOTHmG 

TWEES 


Thii blind god ... 
You all knuie me ... 


LOVE 
NEWS 


A great healer ,,. 

When I camt; you didnH feel me 

A pet to many he belongs ... 


TIME 

Lim 

FIRE 



You have to give tlie big robot your credit canJ to 
pass him but I thinly that if you ttmsw tlie flask (puU 
tlie plug on Big Robot, get the card, tlien tfirow tiie 
Haste) at the Godfather, his bodyguarid.s will drop it 
for you. (The flask is found on the rooQ. You may 
have trouble getting past the tramps and wrcekage 
but if you push ihe pillars In their cable room, they 
win rush in to save their energy supply and you tain 



Page &s Neiv Atari User 



31 



h 



To 



yrpm 
Jartst 



Patch of cisor Land S 
—* Clear Land — of Observation 

ITowar 
I 



fmn'EjiStstm 



Clear 
Land 



NW Corner Middle 

of — * of - 
Wheatfield W^«□tfield 

1 I 

SW Corrwr Middle of 

of — field - 
Whealfeld of Wheat 

I I 

Beach Beach S 

The Beach BesJde — of Hu^e - 

5«a5Jde Wheatfteld 



Clear Lond 
- Wot 
High Wall 

1 
On 



II 

/ 



NE 
Corner 



In 

-Wheonield 

by River 

Eend 
- of Beach * 



To 

On ihi 
3tach 



InEW 
Wvef — 
Tunnel 

I 

NEnd 

of Echoing 

Hal! Hall 



Echoing 
Hall 



Damp 
" Tunnel 



Return 



to Eden 



Sof 

Echo 

Chamber 

I 

Between 

Double 

Doors 



Amildst 
Twisty Root*- 

cutters 



1 _ 



Amidst 
Cables 

pUksfs 
W Of Fire 



.At Cross 
Junction 

1 
N End Of 
Bare Wail 



To Blocl(ed 
Vent Shaft 

ph\.g 

I 

Vent 
Junction 



/ 



On 
lioof 

Vent 
System 



Dead End 
Pipe 



End of 
Ouct 



^^ Throne ■^ 



Air Duel 

Conditioning — Junction 
Duct 



Hall E 
of Fire 



Below 
Surface 



To 

9i^ Comer 



'Throne 

Qcidfaiher 

Swimming Swimming 
Underwater — Through 
Water Plants 



5 u Many 
f— Coloured 
^ Sand 

i 

Tq 

Swlmn^ng Neor On 

- Furttier — Riverbonic — Riverbed - 
DHDwnstfearn 



Duct 
Terminus 



Hatcii kn 
- Duct 

busker 

Tight 
Recess 
gmliitg 



Swimming 

Under Walls 

credii cafd 

I" 

Tiiiinei 



1 



33 



Pa^ B's New Atari User 



Sheer 
Cliff 

I" 

Btack *- 
Mountains 



Casino 



Shof es of 
Deofth 



\J 



Broken 
Lands 



■^ Earlhsea 



End of 
Road 



BesJde 



Deep in 



little House Yeor Wood 



Long and 

Winding 

Rood 

I 

- Duncton . 
Wood 



Staid 
t 

Yellow 
Brick Road 



Tropic oE 
Hottmus© 



Curiosity 
Shop 



Dream. 
Parit 



Goite 
' of Ivrll 



. Fountains 
ot Parodise 



Ancient 
■ City of 
Lankmcir 



By well 

I IN 

In Well 



Station 
Ticlcet 
Barrier 



Shabby 
Platform 



Tff 



STATION 1 



Blue 

Glass 
Elevator 

I 

Near 

Floor 

Button 

Shabby 
Subway 
Plotform 

Foyer ot 
City Hall 



Track 



Near 

Floor 

Button 



barrisf 



Hallway 

I 

In 
Bodymaint 



Vacant 
— Habihome 



— Balcony 



STATION 2 



harrier 



STATION 3 



Shabby 
Platform 



Shalsby 
PlQtlorm 



bamcr 



get past them. The grating is passed through 
from the other end. I cannot, however, soKx- 
thc problem ivith tlic cutters Eind the roots. 
GIVE rhe CARD to Uic buslter to get up 
topside. You will find llie train ticket if you 
tear the packet you find fn tiie Well of Souls. 
If you use the jiverboat. you can go to the 
casino to i^ct more money, but [ bellei-'e this is 
pure luck, Otherwrtse I'm stuck. Any Ideas? 

Page 6's N&w Atari User 



That's iijor this issu^. I leas going to include 
the Ihit-d pan of the ndventiirs, Wonn In Para- 
dise, but the maps turned out to be a bit n^ore 
space cotisumimg than, orfcjtruiiiy thoiighl (imd 
a hell of lot moFic tiirie consumit^ to do!) so this 
Lofll have to wait for next time. See you therd 
In the meaMime YOUR hints and tips on c^y 
aspect of Atari gamli^ are Loeicome as id- 
ways. PLEASE ser^ them to: 

THE TIPSTER 

NEW ATARI USER 

P,0. BOX 54 

STAFFORD 

ST 16 1TB 



33 



Features 

and 



COMPUTER 
INTELLIGENCE 



Ann O'Driscoll 
concludes her 
series on artificial 
intelligence with a 
program that 
makes your Atari 
look smart 



One of the features of Espert Systems 
is the ability to build up Infornuition 
on partlcvilar Icpica. The short liat- 
ing here Is a simple illtistratlon of how you 
can get your Atari to do Just that. In this 
example, the computer Is going to Icam about 
animals, but, as we'll sec below, it could 
equally be used for all sorts of other topics, 
When the pnograin Starts, the Atari knows 
about the existence of two animaia - budgies 
and tigers, it also knows that budgies can fly 
and tigersi can noL The opening screen asks 
you to think of an animal - let's suppose you 
come up with "dog", llie computer will then 



ask the ONLY question it knows about anim- 
als at this stage: 

Can itjly? 
[f you lype no, the Atari will print 

I think the ariswer te tiger 

because this Is the only non-njlng animal It 
ha5 information about. WTncn you lell it that 
It's wrong. It will ask you for the name of your 
animal, plus some questions tJiat wil! disting- 
uish the new anim^il from the one it already 
knows, ForeKainple, ifyou inputted "dog", 
your distinguishing question might be "does it 
roar?". The Atari now has an extra animal 
and a new fact which it will add to jts store of 
knowledge. More and more informatton Is 
asaimilatcd as you continue to play the gues- 
sing game. 



HOW IT WORKS 



The string Q$ holds the questions that tan 
be asked to identify the animals while AS 
holds the animals names. Each question can 
be up to 39 characters long [LQ in LINE 100) 
and caeh name ean take up 10 eharaeter 
Spaces (LA In LINE 100), The pix>gram is set to 
cope with up to 50 questions (N-50 in LINE 



100). The opening question and the two fnltlal 
animals are defined In LINES 140 - 150, The 
variables NQ and NA hold the number of 
questions and anawera in store - LINES 140 
and 150 initially set these at 1 and 2 nespec- 
tix-ely. 

The two numeric arrays Y and N, DlMen- 
sioned In LINE 120, are used as pointers for 
the number of the next question to ask or the 
number of the animal to be printed on screen. 
The Y arrsy looks after cases where the 
answer to the previous question was 'Yes", If 
Y has a value of 50 or under, it gives the next 
question number, ITY has a value above 50 It 
will give the number of the animal. ITie N 
array does the same thing for "No" answers.. 
These pointers are continually being tipdated 
during the guessing game. Take the REM 
away from LI^fE 765 txi see the values in the 
yes and no arrays for each question as it gets 
asked. 



CONCLUSION 

Well, that Just about ends the review of Arti- 
ficial Intelligence for now. A more elaborate 
version nf this listing is included on the issue 
disk. This allows you to sa^'e and load files 
and also gives you the option of setting up a 
new iile from scratch. In programs like this of 
course, we know that the Atari doesn't actual- 
ly understand anything it leams. It ^vlll quite 
happily accept that pigs can lly ifyou tell ii 
sol Nonetheless, It's not a bad example of how 
you might be able to get your computer to at 
least fool some of the people some of the Ome! 



THE LISTING 

The program to accojnponu this article 
is on this Issue's disk and also avail- 
able as aprintsd isiting upon request. 
See inside back cover for details. 



34 



Page 6's New Ataii User 



^Editorial 

continued 



I went directly to a sub p^e of a site called 
Native Creations to check out a company that 
creates replica Native Americaii clothing and 
whUe It was superb It was again in fuU colour 
and took ages to download, I backed up to the 
main site and found loads of Icons leading to 
related subjects and it bcjian to look tntcrt:St- 
Ing. I cheeked out a few sites which were good 
although a bit sparse, for instance 'Books" had 
only two listed and SuppUes' had only one 
supplier but the information was useful. I then 
tried an Icon entitled Organlsattons and Links 
and found references to dozens of related sites. 
Skimming through them I saw American Indi- 
an Movement and clicked on that. About half- 
way down their Index of contents f found .., 
Leonard Peltier. In fact dozens of references to 
look up- I was quite excited when -. ., Ping] .,. 
my hour was up! Talk about fnJstTaUng, it had 
taken me an hour to find what 1 wanted and I 
then had no time left to read anything, ^^'hat I 
want Lo know is why the hell didn't the Search 
engine find tliese references In tiie first place? 

It looks like I will have Lo go again and Spend 
another f K'er, bu t this timjc \ know exactly 
where to go and providing lliere are no 
graphics to download I should get a g^md fiv- 
er's worth of research. Trouble is with these 
Cyber Cales you can't download stuff and take 
it away to read later, it all has to be done In 
real time. Maybe then: is an opportunity here 
for someone to set up a download service for 
those of us who don't have ready access Lo the 
Net? 

ITie upshot is that 1 did Anally find Informa- 
tmn [even though I haven't read ityctl) that 1 
could not possibh' have found in any other 
way and this is wheit; the true strength of the 
Ir:itemet Ueg, This Is where it becomes a thing 
of wonder. 

Just like I ran out of Umc I am now running 
out of room so liave to go. Maybe i shouki 
have turned this into an arttclel 

Les 'Eldngfuim. 



PcLge 6's J'ieu/ Atari User 



35 



The CLASSIC 






Z09^ 



FAREWELL 
TO FUTURA 



As &tatsd in the lost tesue Stuart Murray has 
rducionfJy ceased piJ>Ifcd tton of the disk 
based r-\eivsiet.ter of the North d/ Scotland Atari 
User Croup, Tbejtst seven, issues ofFlfFURA 
hane a/ready been reviewed bock in issues 59 
and 64 of New Atari User. As tlie renrvaining 
disks have }\ow been relEosed Into the Page 6 
Library (Lisa good ttnie to see what goodies 
they contain* 



FUTURA EIGHT 

Text articles Include news about AMS7, a 
readers survty on the contents of FUIURA, 
and software reviews of The Curse, Hans 
Kloss and Darkness Uovn. Plus reviews of 
VCS games based on films, an Inlrodiictloni to 
the Old Hackers group in America, and an 
index for the ccmtcnts of tlie first six issues of 
FUTURA. WQRDWIZE, COt/^TDOWN. 
SYNinON 2 are three good games, 
TURDCnXXiL V2~6 - This is an old sector 
editor which has been updated and im- 
proved with Turbo BASIC. Version 2.6 Is 
now a very powerful PD prognain and 

36 



by 

Austin Hillman 



Just as good as iTiEiny commercial 
editors, 

TURBO BASIC DOES WILD THINGS 
DEMO - This is a pov^fcrful little Turbo BASIC 
demo which shows the x-ersatiUty of tlie TEXT 
command. HiACTAL nRAGONS 1 &2- 
Thosc with an interest in Fractal Art will find 
these demos to be worth looking at. 

TRONG - fs described as a cross ^settveen the 
Tron Light Cycles game and Pong, hcnOc Tr- 
ong. A good two pJayer game. 



FUTURA NINE 

TcKl articles Include revtews of Tarkusn The 
Citadel, Chuckie Egg, Pengon, Enlgmatix and 
Desert Falcon. Structured programming is 
made easy in Turbo Flyer part one. The com- 
ing of Tlie Jaguar is announced. 'Tlie Battle of 
the BASICa is analysed. Adding a Printer ex- 
amines the Citizen 120D. 

VALGUS 2 ' stiperb Atari 8-bit version of 
the ST public domEJiin Tetlls clone of the same 
nanie, Valgijs 2 features four-way action! The 
gameplay consists of building coloured rec- 
tangles around the centre square. Great 
game, good fun! 

GLYPH FOi^TEOnOR - This is one of the 
best font editors I've seen for the Atari S-b1t! 



Glyph is packed with options. Full dots can 
be found on this disk. 

ACE. PLOTER - European Demo time again! 
This tlmje wc have Ace Ploter from Magnus of 
the World Federation of Mad Hackers. 

BBK ARTIST - Seen by many as the best PD 
art package on the Atari fl-blt. BBK Artist is a 
feature-packed program with the ability to 
toad fonts and place text onto pictures. All of 
the art options are pretty straight- forward, 
Stuart used BBK Artist to design the title 
screens for Futura, I find it to be a powerful 
and yet easy-to-use art package. Try out the 
many options and I'm sure you'll agreet 

SOUND MOJVnUR PROFESSIONAL VI .2 
' Originally featured In FLITURA 2, To cele- 
brate the imminent release of a new NOSAUG 
PD double -sided SMP disk, which features 
documentation in English and loads of .SNG 
files, five of these new ,SNG files are included 
on this disk as a sample of Just how good this 
program Is. 

KOUNG - This is a little 2 -player Pong game 
which has been programmed in Quick, It's 
good fun If you give it a chance! It's even 
better fun if you can remember the old E'ong 
machines In the arcades! 



FUTURA TEN 

There are more text articles this Issue, in- 
cluding 8-Blt Nev.'S, Software Scene, and 
Turbo BASIC Flyer part two. There is 8-Blt 
trtvia about the missing Atari cartridges. 
Hardware Warehouse looks at a joy pad, and a 
new column called Atari S-Blt Memories, 
looks back at good and bad memories of oom-^ 
puting on the Atari. 



MERKVMIX UP- Santa's mixed up all the 
Christmas presents - can you help him sort 
them out? Use a Joystick to match the Christ- 
mas gifts. Festive fun for esveryonel 

THE FUTURA CHRISTMAS DEMO - A su- 
perb Christmas den» programmed for 
NOSAUG by ace Scottish programmer 'Spike' 
from Midbtiiian, 

DISK COMMUNICATOR 3 - An excellent 
disk utility by Bob Puff. Psick one side of a 
disk Into a single file and vice versa, Vety 
uscr-frlendly and good for expanded 
machines! 

MINE HUNTER - More NEW software! Thfs 
Ume Ihjm long-term Futurian. Bryan Zill- 
wood. This great Turbo iSASIC game Is a clone 
of Minesweeper, 

DISK SECRETARY' This excellent Turbo 
BASIC uylity by Ron Fetzer of OHAUG is for 
use with The Turbo I3AS1C Flyer column. 

A-ROCUE - Is a very addictive adventure 
game based on the classic lualnframe adven- 
ture "Rogue". 



FUTURA ELEVEN 

On this disk you will find a huge text section 
cm^erlng many aspects of the Atari 8-biL 
Futura Feedback returns with answers to 
your questions. The Atari 8- Bit Bookshelf be- 
gins a cumprehenslw list of books. Swift 
Spreadsheet and Tlie Brundlcs are tested to 
the fuU In Software Scene, Hardware Ware- 
house investigates if it is worth buying an ST, 
Add to this 8-Bit Trivia, Hints & Cheats. 8-Bit 
Neivs, etcetera, you will firiid over 700 sectors 
of text, 

DISKUTIL - This is a superb new program 



Page 6's New Atari User 



Page &s New At<u-i User 



37 



by Fiituiian Lcs Wagar from Canada. DtakUUl 
Is a disk editor and utUlly package with many 
powerful features. An excellent DlskUtll Tuto- 
rial by Les Wagar himself Is Included. 

THE SIMPSONS SUDESHOW - All fans of 
the popular cailaon acrlts, or Indeed anyone 
who likes computer art, wU] enjoy this slide- 
show containing picture flics produced On 
Atari Artist and BBK Artist by local NOSAUC 
member Ray Brown, 

SISYPHOS - This is a demonstration ver- 
sion of an excellent puzzle game. It features 
some very good graplilcs and sound! The ob- 
ject J9 to push all of the bdutders tnto the 
hole?. Be warned - it is not as easy aa it 
sounds! Use a Joystick to guide the little man 
around the maze. Hours of fun guaranteedf 



FUTURA TWELVE 

Text articles In tills Issue Include, Software 
Pricing and Atari 8-Blt News. Slammln', Is the 
new column abcsut SMP- Adding a Mouse is 
another new column and part one starts with 
buying a mouse. Hardware Warehouse in- 
stalls a write-protect svntch. F\itura Feedback 
Is an art; prngrams. The facts about 3,5" 
drives are discussed. Turbo BASIC Flyer ex- 
amines undoing the BASIC garbage quirk, 

WINSTON SMII^S - This is a surprising 
little animation. Just sit back and enjoy an 
alternative political broadcast! 
THE "GET OFF OF MY BACK' DEMO - 
This is a demo by Kevin Cooke, It was created 
by the new DCS program. Demo Maker. [>on't 
forget to read Kevin's re\'lew of Deino Maker 
before enjojf'lng his demo, 

NOTE INVADERS - A new and very original 
program by Kevin Cooke! Kevin has put a tot 

33 



of work into Note Invaders and has produced 

an excellent educatlonaj game- Blast those 

notes! 

JflEASURER'S REPORT - Ron Fetzer of the 

Ol' Hackers A.U.G. In New York has come up 

with the goods again! Tresisurer's Report Is a 

very useful finance program. 

E.S,P. - Is it the power of the mind or the 

power of the microprocessoi'j:' 



FUTURA THIRTEEN 



Text articles Include 8 -Bit news about AMS8, 
BaPAUG. AC, Club CenacJe, etcetera. Slam- 
mln', part 2 of Br>'an Zillwood's column on 
SMP, Spring All Micro Show 1994. Software 
Scene, SOS Saturn and Fampy are reviewed. 
Adding a Mouse, Kevin Cooke examines the 
SAM Desktop system. The Atari S-Bit Book- 
shelf, the book list continues with D. E and F. 
Hardware Warehouse, looks at the world of 
"Of and your printer. FUTURA Feedback, 
your questions answered, 8- Bit Memories, by 
Kevin Cooke. The latest news about the 
Jaguar, 

DOMMENU VI. 39 - Tlie new menu system, 
which can also display the dueumentation as 
well as run the programs. VJEWDOCS - An 
improved Version of the text reading program 
which has been made redundant by 
DOMMEtSfU, 

For the first time the flip side is devoted to a 
single program. After requests for mcmc 
adventure / Strategy software. Fuiura pre- 
sents THE SLAVE CEl^LARS OF GOLGO- 
ijOTHhy Clayton Walnum. This is an enhan- 
ced version featuring digitized graphics, litis 
is not really my cup of tea but it looks to be a 
good adventure. 



Page 6's New Atari User 



FUTURA FOURTEEN 

Text articles include 8-Blt news. Atari Cor- 
poiatlon, Textpro 5,20X. Adding a Mouse, 
part 3. MlssUe Command, by Kevin Cooke. 
Software Scene. Vicky reviewed by Daniel 
Bavcrstock. VCS FUTURA - A tribute to Jay 
Miner. The VCS Rap, Horror Carts. Inside the 
VCS, Da^id Crane, etcetera. S-BSt Memories, 
with Colin and Heather Doyle. Han^ware 
Warehouse, a cheap home-made printer in- 
teriace. The S-Bit Bookshelf, part 4, the let- 
ters C-L, Software scene. Daniel Baver stock 
reviews SAM Designer, AMS8 report, Kevin 
Cooke at All Micro Show 8. The Black & Red. 
a new column for the Atari Jaguar user. News 
from the UK and USA. Doom, The Special 
Edition reviewed. Slammin', part 3 of Bryan 
Ztllwood's column on SMP. 
DOMMENU VI .52 - An improved version of 
this exceUent menu program is now adopted 
as standard for FUTURA. 

Once again the flip side is devoted to a single 
program. Flip the disk, boot with BASIC and 
you can enjoy an amazing nev? hypertext sys' 
tcm for the Atari 8-bit: CARDSTAf V2.0- Go 
beyond the boundaries of text with CardStax, 
who need a PC anyway I 



FUTURA FIFTEEN 

Text articles include 8-Bft news. ACPC Hard- 
ware. The Return of Atari Classics. DTP 
AtariS, Eric Bemrose begjns a new Futura 
column on Atari 8-bit desktop publishing. In 
this first Instalment. Eric asks "What Is 
DTP?". In subsequent colunms. he will cx- 
arnine some of the DTP titles available for tlie 



Atari e-bit. The 8-Btt Bookshelf, part 5. the 
letters M-R, Games for the future. Kevin 
Cooke states what he wants to see on his 
XL/XE. Atari 8-Bit Memories, Mding a 
Mouse, part 4, Special Forces - Operation 
Blood 11. VCS FUTURA - Cartridge Collecting 
by David Wyn Davies, Tlie Black & Red, 
Jaguar Talk with Michael ClatTworthy. Sensi- 
ble Soccer, Val D'lscnc. Jaguar Owners Club.. 
Checkered Flag re\1ewed. Jaguar Gameology 
with Daniel DaVerstOCk. a detailed Insight into 
the current computer games markcL 
LOTTERY NUMBERS, FACE UP PATJ- 
ENCE and BOMBS AWAYt - Are three new 
programs by Bryan ZiUwood, REACTION & 
CONCENTRATION TESTER - Is another 
gi'eat new program by Kevin Cooke. Instruc- 
tions are available within tiie program itself. 
CASSETTE/DJSK MASTER - is the latest 
tape to disk menu system from a new English 
company called MADSOFT. Tlrie makers claim 
that It will transfer ANY cassette software to 
disk with the reisulOng file being compatible 
with most other comnwn menus, Including 
liowfen DOS and Transdiak. From my brief 
trials, their claims seem to be correct! There 
are no docs supplied but the program is very 
easy to use - have a play around with the 
menu options and you should be transferring 
cassettes to disk In no Untc. 



CONCLUSION 

Stuart aimed to f^ll each disk with the very 
best available articles and programs, and with 
the help of his fellow Puturians I think he 
succeeded, as each Issue contains something 
for everyone. The remaining slK issues will be 
detailed In my next column. # 



P(3^ 6's New Atari User 



39 



PROGRAMMING 




RECURSION 



A generally agreed princtplt for writing a 
computer program Is that it should be 
structured and Turbo Baste with its 
procedures and its vajigua kinds of loops 
allows you to write In this way, 1 have recently 
oome across another kind of program loop 
which you may find Interesting, It Is called 
'Recursion' and allows a procedure to call 



by David Sargeant 



itself as often as It requires. 
As you can see from Listing # 1 the Recursive 
procedure Is executed 3 times, firstly fit>m the 
main pit>grajn and subsequently from the Re- 
cursive procedure iLsclC Below Is a list of the 



Lt^ 11 m mmimmmmmBBU 


program fl( 


>w, you can us 


n n REH K RECURSION - LISTING 1 S 


Main Recursion 




OL 12 REH )( BY DWID EftRG'EWT 5E 










EV 13 REM I (TURBO BASIC) S 


Lin«# 100 








IT ij DrM 1 „— ___ --_____-—— J 


110 
120 
130 








Li I'l Ktn i ~ * 




BH J5 REM K NEH flTAfil USER - SEP 95 3f 








m u m ummMMumimmun 




1B0 






■m Jit GIWPWICS :i8;? 'RECURSION'!? 




190 






Sy lie DIM SPACED (^3) iSPACEt^' •i]=yA 




200 






W I2fl ^ 'Main prDgrim' 






180 
190 




IX 138 EXEC RECURSION 






?m 




AT 149 ? 'Miifi prograi again* ;EHD 








leo 


JM m " 








190 


JO 159 -- 








200 


NO 17e PROC RECURSION 








210 


CR 189 ? SPACEft 1,15 ['Forward ';I 








220 
230 


FK 196 I=H^1 






210 




TB 269 IF K4 THEN EXEC RECURSION 






220 




FL 210 1=1-^1 






230 




PZ 226 ? SPACE*(l,I>;'BacKward •;! 




210 






UO 238 ENDPROD 




220 
230 






JL 246 -- 


140 









40 



Page 6's New Atrni- User 



^ 


NEWS e^tra 

AMS 
DATES 


IjA 16 REK HIHlCnHmiHmillHHH 
Xr 11 REM J RECURSION - LISTM 2 K 
OL 12 REM ]f HY M-'ID MRGEAHT S 
EY J3 REM J (TURBO BASIC) 5 

IT Id OEM ¥ — __— — -_-_._-_„_-^. I 


LI 11 Mtn t ~ — — — ""' — ——. — . J 

0H 15 REM i NEH ATARI USER - SEP 95 I 

UH u m nmBumiimnmnMm 

ffl m GRAPHICS YAi7 'RECURSIITi - PRIME F 


ACTORS' J? 

AG 116 INPUT ^Nuntier <9 to exilf >',NWBE 

R 
ei 126 HKILE NUMBER 
2F I3i DMS0R=>!2 
UR 146 WHILE DIVISDR(=NlliBER 
FH 15i EXEC FACTOR 
FE lie DMS0R=DIUISD:R*'^1 
UX 171 MEND :? i? 

yx 186 IMPUT 'NExt nimber )',NyMBER 
PX m MEND :ENO 
JD 266 -- 
JF 211 - 

IS 226 Pmt FflCTDfi 
ON im IF NOT (NIFBER HOD DIUISOR) 
JC 246 ? ' 'jDiyiSQRs 
02 258 NyHBEft=NyMBER DW DIUISOR 
FP 2i6 EXEC FACTOR 
IX 27B EHDIF 
m 286 EHDPROC 

jv m ^- 


The All Micro Show at Stafford Is still going 
strong with this year's dates now available. 

The Spring show - SAMS '^8 Is on Saturday 

18 April and the regular show - AMS '98 is on 
Saturday 14 November "98. Both shows arc 
open from 10am Lo 4pm and admission Is £3 
for adults with children under 14 at only 50p. 
[f you wish to save a few quid you can get 
advance tickets from the t>rTga.nisers for £2 
plus a stamped addressed envelope. Send to 
ShaAvard Promotions, Knlghtsdale Business 
Centre. 30. Knightsdale Road, Ipswtchn iPl 
4JJ. 

We have no details of what Atari support will 
be at the shows this year but there is ahvays 
some and a Wslt will be well worthwhile if you 
want to Qnd some cheap software or pick up a 
disk drive (get there earlj'!). If you also have a 
PC then Uie show is a must as there art 
literally thousands of PC programs around at 
bargain basement prices. 


CONTRIBUTIONS 

We are desperately short of 
contributions for coming issues. 

Please send what |^u con - articles, prog- 
rainM,rvvieu3s of softu/Ofe, in fact any thing 
of Interest to Jellow Atari users. If ifou. 
cannot itrlte yourself perhaps yQU C9uld 
Jlnd something in User Group publictitians 
that we coutd republish7 

RemesTTiber ' unthout your contribiitions ittt 
httoe major problems. I cannot mrite it all 
myse^ 

Les "EtCingham 


The main program Is executed do^wi to line 
130 where control Is passed to the RECUR- 
SION pmccdurc. This executes down to line 
200 where the value of I is checked. Jf the 
condition Is true, the RECURSION procedure 
Is c-arrlcd out again fuDm the beginning, but If 
It Is false, lines 2 10-230 are carried out. 
When the procedure exits program control 
passes back to tlie place where the procedure 
was called, which could be either the RECUR- 
SrON procedure Jtself or the main program. 

Listing # 2 is a small routine to show how a 
recursive prttc^dure can be used for a practic- 
al purpose. It calculates tlie prime factors of 
any positive integer. • 



Page 6's New Atai User 



41 



Features 

and 



PAST, PRESENT AND fOTURE 

- AN ATARI OWNERS TALE!!! 



Since Atari no kmger exfsts In the form 
that we have known since the latjc 
1 970s It Is perhaps A good time to 
reflect on what could have been, what Is and 
whiit the future might be. 

There can be no doubt thai the Atari 8-blt 
machines are one oT If not the best 8-blt 
range of computers ever to be madc» their 
only problem Is how badly they are under- 
rated by those that have had little or no con- 
tact with them. Sadly that js the vast majority 
of computer users. A friend of mine who Is a 
Music Technology lecturer and has^ had vast 
experience In electronics (he was one of the 
first pcoplt to get an Atari PaJcon and de- 
velopment kit fiiom Atari UK to enhance 
music and its presentation) dfice told nie he 
w^s amazed at Just how advanced the 8-b1t 
machines were when they were flrst released. 
What might have been? 

Februaiy 1986 was when 1 acquired my first 
Atari computer, an 800XL with Phonemark 
data recorder (a similar design to the Atari 
XC12 but In beige and with an external power 
cord - probably the forerunner to the XC 12]. a 
Joystick and five games in the DlKons/Currys 
bundle for about £80. Its hard to beUeve that 
was over ten years ago, and guess what? The 
computer stJll works fine, even if the data 
recorder only lasted a few monthsl 

After a visit to W, II. Smith 1 found the 
original Atari User magazine from Database 
Publications which as we all know no longer 
exists since It was bought out by Page 6 In 
October/ November of 1 9 S8. This magazine 
provided my monthly fix of reviews, articles 



by Richard Gore 



and type-ins which never seemed to work first 
time and I was very aad to see It go, but then J 
discovered Page $ and quickly discovered It 
was as good if not better than Atari User. 



BOOM TIME 

The month of February 1 986 was the start of 
the boom in Atari 8-blt budget software. Upon 
my first visit to my local computer shop 1 was 
greeted by two or three sheh'cs of software, all 
of it priced at £10 or more. Other machines 
such as Spectrum, Commodore and even Am- 
strad had more softw.'aTTe and it was priced 
lower but as we all know they didn't have 
quite the same quality. My first purchase wss 
Spy Hunter on tape for £9.95. a vertically 
scrolling car game tliat has you shooting 
other cars, dropping oil slicks, and firing mis- 
siles at hcUoopters, all controlled from two 
jojrstlcks or the keyboard, a great game and at 
the tinK it was worth the ten quid. My next 
visit to the shop a couple of weeks later was 
greeted with a tremendous surprise, there 
amongst all the lavishly packed ill plus 
games were two cassette tapes in those single 
sized cases priced at just £1.99 each. iTie 
titles were Clumsy Colin Action Biker and 
One Man and His Droid, both from a com- 



i 



42 



Page 6's Neiv Atari User 



pany called MastertiDnlc- f tmmcdlatcly 
boujght both titles. Unfortunately Action Biker 
would not load a^nd when I returned it to the 
shop the ajssistant asked me If 1 was running 
It on an 800XL, which [ was, and he said that 
was where my problem was as It wouldn't 
work. Mastertronic must have fixed this prob- 
lem because a couple of years later 1 tried 
another copy from another shop and that did 
workt Anyway over the next few years more 
and more budget titles became available, 
eclipsing the full priced titles and eventually 
forcing most full priced games out of the mar- 
ket. During ihcsc couple of years companies 
like US Gold. MicroProsc, lynesoft and others 
were releasing full price quality games. Mas- 
tertrenjc and Firebird (a division of British 
Telecom) were releasing budget games, and 
smaller firms were releasing new hardware 
(for example, 2-bit Systems Replay sound 
digitising cartridge), if there ever were any 
boom years for the Atari 8- bits then the 
period of 1986 to mid 1989 were themf 



DUMP TIME 

The world of consumer electronics Is fast 
paced and machines such as the Commodore 
Amiga, and the emerging IBM PC clones were 
now being sold tn vast numbers. Many Atari 
users dumfKd their machines and moved on. 
As a result software sales dmpped and only a 
few committed companies like Page 6, Zeppe- 
lin games and to a lesser extent Hl-Tcch and 
Byte Back softivare were releasing new soft- 
"svave and/or re-re3ea.s1ng older software at 
budget prices. The boom was well and tnily 
over and only the dedicated Alar! lo^'ers were 
leli but tliey would fight on. During this time 
there were rumours of many games being 
written for the Atari, like Elite, Paper Boy. 
Shadow of the Elcast and many, many more. 

Page 6's Ne 



Ail sorts of stories were spreading about them 
and most Atari users wouJd have gtven almost 
anything to get copies. Some people even 
claimed to have ^-erslons of some Utles. ] have 
seen a demo version of Shadow of the Beast 
but It was nowhere near complete. Piracy, a 
dodgy siubjecl mailer at the best of times, was 
one reason for the death of the 8-b(ts, but 
others have argued piracy is why the Atari 
has survived so long. One thing that is for 
certain is that piracy has not gone away on 
any format. 



COMMITTED 
SUPPORTERS 

Now, all that Is left are a dedicated few, 
several hundred, possibly a couple of 
thousand users, a handful of commercial out- 
lets, eg Page 6, Micro E>iscount (aka Derek 
Fern], DCS and one or two Indmduals like 
myself. Several commercial outlets and Atari 
Classics magazine still ejdst In the USA and 
there Is a smaU but nourishing ooroimumty on 
the Internet (uscnet gioup 
ccimp-sys-atari,8-blt for those with access). 



POPULAR PCs? 

PCs are now very popular, many people use 
them at work, at school, at college or even in 
the home. ISmegs of memory. SVGA moni- 
tors. ] .2gig hanJ drives, CD-ROMs and Intel 
Pentium pnjcessors are all common comput- 
ing terms now in this Multimedia explosion 
we are experiencing, The drawback? Well the 
price, for one thing, a mid -range reasonably 
well equipped PC can ea.siSy cost £1000 to 
£1 200. For an extra couple of hundred 
LLf Atari User 43 



"W 



pounds you can turn your PC Into a com- 
btned telephone, fax and answering machtnel 
Add a printer, about £200 for a colour bub- 
bJcjct. and your free copy of Windows 95 and 
Microsoft Works and you have a complete 
Multimedia family entertainment console, 
tota] outlay about £1500. ^3ow I have spent tn 
exEzcss of that airtfiunt on my Atari 8-blt 
equipment and software but over a period of 
ten years. I work a full time job that pays 
reasonably well, but [ really can't justify 
spending £ 1500 on a PC when my existing 
S-hit machine can do most of the simple 
things a PC can do. Sure 1 can't do complex 
DTP, I can't play CD-ROMS [well not yet 
there are rumours some people in Germany 
are working on thatl) but I can write letters, 1 
can wrJte articles (this fs one of themj 1 can 
keep track of my finances, 1 can play miany 
wonderful games, and aU from a machine that 
originally cast le^s than £80, Okay, plus a 
disk drive that cost £1 50! 



FULL CIRCLE? 

Games consoles are now also very common, 
SNEQ and Mcgadrive were very popular a year 
or two ago but now the Sony Play station and 
Sega Saturn are all the rage. Most games are 
now supplied on CD [veiy cheap to duplicate), 
most feature great graphics, stereo sound and 
even full motion vrldeo, but Just look at the 
price. £40 to £50 each Is about the norm. 
Have wc ceme full circle? Some of the best 
early Atari games were that sort of price. I 
must admit [ have partially succumbed as a 
couple of months ago I bought a Philips CD-I 
machine at a discounted price, llils machine 
can play ildeo CD films, karaoke discs and 
CD-I games. Some of the games arc absolut- 
ley mlnd-blowlng with full motion video, 
stereo sound. Some even have good game play 

44 



There Is a limited range of VJdeo CP films 
available, which is a shame because the qual- 
ity can be better than a VCR for about the 
same price a^ VHS films. If only more wide- 
screen titles were available. This system Is 
connected to my main TV along with my VCR 
and satellite receiver and gets used about half 
an hour a week. I still use my S-blt Atari 
much mote and quite often I'll spend an hour 
playing Mr DO, one of my all time favourite 
gjamcs. I am e^tn still working on writing new 
software, some of which you should see very 
soon, 

What docs the future hold? Well so long as 
people arc still using their 8-blt machines 
there Is a future for them. If we keep sub- 
scribmg to Fiage 6 and supporting the com- 
mercial Dudets there is no reason why we 
shouldn't enjoy years more with our S-blts. 
Sure there is room for new technology. PCs 
and games consoles. (I use PCss at work to 
control Ultra violet spectrometers, and HPLC 
machines - something the old 8-bit machines 
would struggle to do, although I'm sure si>me 
liroited control would be possible) but I'll bet 
you will still want to use your 8-bit Atari. 
Indeed software now? exists that will emulate 
an Atari 8-bit machine on a PC, and this has 
resulted In many ejc -users becoming users 
again, without e^-en owning an 8-bit 
machlnelll! How's that for progress? Devebp- 
mcnt Is undenvay to aJlow CD-ROM and IDE 
Hard drl\'es to be connected to your S-bit and 
even cables and software to allow your 1 050 
drive to be connected to your PC, Imagine the 
look on your boss's face as he walkss in and 
sees your 1 050 drive connected to his PC and 
you sal there playing Pac-Man or Star 
Raiders! 

To finish off i want to quote somebody, I'm 
sorry but I've forgotten who said it but here 
goes; 

"Old computers ne\"er die, they Just acquire 
dedlcted users." • 



i!}& KCissms^fop 



NEW PD LIBRARY ADDITIONS 



DISK #289 - COHNAN 

A couple of excellent arcade style games 
here which have been seen before but 
which author Robert de better has now 
bundled together with a start-up menu. 
The first gam£ is The Caves of Ctulhl Jn 
which our hero - Cohnan - ha-s to battle 
hJs way along many platforms collecting 
the gems but avoiding the fires, spikes and 
other nasty things that will end his life. 
This originally appeared in New Atari User 
Issue 67 as a (ype-in and. of coui^c on 
that disk. The second game is much more 
of a strategy game combining several for- 
mats of collecting gems in a given order 
and pushing Items into a chamber. This 
was originally on a Futura disk In 1996, 
Graphics and gamcplay on both are excel- 
lent and together they mprcscnt a chal- 
lenging set both for steady handed games 
players and those who like to think- If you 
haven't got the originals this is the best 
way to have them. 



DS #152 - HAVE A LAUGH 

Here we have a disk of Jokes, stories and 
anecdotes similar to the Nutworks disk 
that can be found on the ST and PCs. All 
of this Is Intended to be fun but BE WAR- 
NED most of the Jokes arc of the 'dirty' 
variety and may well offend some people. 
This Is made very clear In the Introduction 
screen where vou are adidscd to format the 
disk if you are likely to be offended, Tf you 
like smutty Jokes Eind the odd clean one 
then you may well enjoy this. Some of the 
jokes arc oftlie burst out lauglilng variety 
whereas others arc just plain corny and 
there are plenty of 'in' jokes for computer 
users and several 'true' stories. All of the 
text can be accessed fmm a selection 
menu and read like a disk newsletter. 
Please don't buy this if you are not broad 
minded but, if you are you can certainly 
Have A Laug>i as the title suggests. 



DON'T FORGET 



t>S#72 - 
DS#73 - 
DS#78 - 
DS#79 - 
DS#87 - 
DS#89 - 
DS#137 
D$#133 
DS#139 
DS#14CI 
DS#141 



FUTURA 1 
FUTURA 2 
FUTURA 3 
FUTURA 4 
FUTURA 5 
FUTURA 6 

- FUTURA 7 

- FUTURA 8 

- FUTURA 9 

- FUTURA 10 

- FUTURA 1 1 



D$#U2 

DS#1d3 
DS#144 
DS#145 

DS#U« 

DS#147 
• double 

DS#14& 

DS#149 
' double 

DS#150 

DS#151 



- FUnJRA 12 

- FUTURA 13 

- FUTURA 14 

- FUTURA IS 

- FUTURA U 

'FUTURA 17* 

disk n$u» at £2.50 

-FUTURA18 

- FUTURA 19" 
disk issue at £2.SD 

- FUTURA 20 
-FUTURA 21 



RECENT 
ADDITIONS 

DS#133- JOTRLDE 

A Cfreat european derna 

DS#134-BOBTERM 
The? top oomms pivfiniin 

DS#136- ATARI CAD 

A superb ckisign program, 
espedaUyJor those who 
lise ciJTuil diagrams - our 
best sailer lust issue 



Page 6's New Atari User 



Page 6's New Atari User 



45 



BARGAIN CJ^SETTES 



Your choice of 

any 5 CaSSCttCS for £1.50 plus sop p&p 
any 10 CESSCttCS for £2.00 plus £1.20 p&p 



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to trttwtsfer thes<e to iliskl 



COMMERCIAL SOFTWARE STILL AVAILABLE 



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NIBBLER 

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Disk £1 70 

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Casse^e £1.70 

BATTALION COMMANDER 
Cassette £1.70 



4 



OBDER fTEMS FROM THE ACCESSORY SHOP WtTH THE ORDER FORM 

ENCLOSED WITH THIS ISSUE OR WRITE TO 

PAGE e, P,0. BOX 54, STAFFORD, STIS 1DR 

TELEPHONE ORDERS ACCEPTED ON 0mS24tlS3 USING ACCESS OR VISA 



PROGRAMMING 



MAGIC SQUARES 



David Sargeant has 
beenjascinated by 
numbers for years 
and has worked out 
some rules that may 
allow you to create 
Magic Squares on 
your Atari 



Magic squsiTCS have been keeping peo- 
ple buEsy for at least 2,000 years. 
They are magic* because whether 
you add up the numbcra in each row^ each 
column or both of the longest dfagonaJa^ you 
aiways get the same answer. The smallest 
Magic Square is 3 rows tjy 3 ooiuimns and in 
thcoiy there is no limit to the size of the 
largest one. 

Whatever ssize you choose, you have tjo follow 
two simple rules to construct your own. First- 
ly- si\ the numbers must follow each other in 
sequence, for example a 3 x 3 square would 
have to consist of the numbers 1 - 9 or 7 - 15. 
Secon<Uy, if you are making aii even num- 
bered square (4x4 for example), you must 



put the smallest number in One (>f the four 
comers. For an o<3d numbered square (3 k 3 
for example) the smallest number must go In 
the middle of the top or bottum row or the 
middle of the leftmost or rightmost column. 

A3x3 Magic Square 



8 
3 
4 



I 

6 
9 



6 
7 
2 



Rows, Columns and the two longest di- 
agonals add up to 15 



A4 x4 Magic Square 



13 

8 

12 

I 



2 

n 

7 
14 



3 
10 
6 
15 



16 
5 
9 
4 



Rows, columns and the two longest di- 
agonals add up to 34 



CATEGORIES 

It is possible to work out aigorlthms for cal- 
culating most Magic Squares and the^e fall 
into three categories. To find out which 
method to use, divide the Square number by 



46 



Page 6'ii New Atari User 



Page ffs New Atari User 



47 



4 and then proceed as follows: 
- Use TTLcLhod 1 if the remainder Is an odd 
number, e.g. 3, 5, 7, 9 
Use method 2 if the remainder is 0, eg. 4, 

8. 12 
Use method 3 if the pemainder is 2, e.g. 6, 
10, 14 

Hie total of each row, colnTTm and diagonals 
is ca]ciilatj&d by adding the smaJleal and 
largest numbers fn the Magic Square and 
multiplying the answer by half the siaac of the 
Square, e.g. a 5 x 5 Square is (l+25l*[5/2)=65 



METHOD 1 

This method is a 2 stage process which In- 
vohts shifting numbers In each row and then 
in each coluinn. 



Stage 1 

Step 1 ■ Calculate n Lo be the number of shifLs 
for each row and column by dividing the size 
of the Magic Square by 2 and ignoring the 
remainder 

Step 2 - Starting with the top row shift each 
number n places to the right Numbers 
which are shifted beyond the end of the row 
are wrapped around to the beginning of the 
same row 

Step 3 ■ Subtract 1 from n and nepeat Step 2 
on tlie now below the previous one and con- 
tinue this until n=t> 

Step 4 - When n-0 you will be on the middle 
row. Numbers on this raw need not be 
changed 

Step 5 ' Reset n aa Step i and starting with 
the bottom itjw this time shift each number 
n places tjo the left. Numbers which are 
shifted beyond the beginning of the row are 
wrapped amund to tlie end of the same row 

Step 6 - Subtract I from n and repeat Step 5 
on tlie row above the previous one and con- 
tinue this until n=0. You will have reached 



the middle n?w ag)aln and this stage is now 
complete 

Stage 2 

This is a similar process to Stage 1 , but 
whereas In Stage 1 rows of numbers are shif- 
ted right and left, this time numbers In each 
column are shtTted downwards and upwards, 

A 5 x5 Magi£ Square 

Start with the numbers In sequence 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


a 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


complete. 


n=2 






4 


5 


1 


2 


3 


10 


6 


7 


8 


9 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


17 


18 


19 


20 


16 


23 


24 


25 


21 


22 


complctE. 


n=2 






17 


24 


1 


8 


15 


23 


5 


7 


14 


16 


4 


6 


13 


20 


22 


10 


12 


19 


21 


3 


11 


18 


25 


2 


9 



METHOD 2 

This Is a two stage proces-s which involves 
reversing certain rows of numbers and swap- 
ping blocks of numbers 

Stage 1 

Calculate n 1 tJO be the number of rows which 
have to be reversed by dividing the size of the 
Magic Square by 2 and n2 to be the number 



Qf rows to leave unchanged before beginning 
the reversing procedure by dividing nl by 2^ 
So after leaving n2 rows as they arc, reverse 
the numbers in the next ni rows. 

Stage 2 

Calculate block to be the row and column 
size of each block of numbers to swap by 
dividing the Magic Squa^re number by 4. Then 
scpaiate the Magic Square Into 16 smaller 
squares of numbers and swap them as 
foUows: 



Stage 2 complete, block ~ 2 



omaiier squares 

1 2 3 


4 


5 6 7 


S 


9 10 11 


12 


13 14 15 


16 


Swap the numbers in squares 




1 1 and 13 




1 . 4 and 16 




6 and 10 




7 and 11 




An8x8 Magic Square 


12 3 4 5 6 


7 8 


9 10 11 12 13 14 


15 16 


17 18 19 20 21 22 


23 24 


25 26 27 28 29 30 


31 32 


33 34 35 36 37 38 


39 40 


41 42 43 44 45 46 


47 48 


49 50 51 52 53 54 


55 56 


57 56 59 60 61 62 


63 64 


Stage 1 complete. nli=4, n2=a 




12 3 4 5 6 


7 6 


9 10 11 12 13 14 


16 16 


24 23 22 21 20 19 


18 17 


32 31 30 29 28 27 


26 25 


40 39 38 37 36 35 


34 33 


48 47 46 45 44 43 


42 41 


49 50 51 52 53 54 


55 56 


57 58 59 60 61 62 


63 64 



57 


58 


3 


4 


5 


6 


63 


64 


49 


60 


n 


12 


13 


14 


55 


56 


24 


23 


46 


45 


44 


43 


18 


17 


32 


31 


38 


37 


36 


35 


26 


25 


40 


39 


30 


29 


28 


27 


34 


33 


48 


47 


22 


21 


20 


19 


42 


41 


9 


ID 


51 


52 


53 


54 


15 


16 


1 


2 


59 


60 


61 


62 


7 


8 



METHOD 3 

Try as 1 might 1 ha^'e not been able to work 
out an algorithm for this type of Square, 
Rules I have worked out for a 6 x 6 Square do 
not remain the same for a 10 x 10 square, so 
you will have to resort to trial and error. 



A6x6 Magic Square 


1 


2 3 4 5 


6 


7 


6 9 10 11 


12 


13 


14 15 16 17 


18 


19 


20 21 22 23 


24 


25 


26 27 28 29 


30 


31 


32 33 34 35 


36 



Trial and error came up with this answer: 

3 numbers on the top row are swapped with 3 

numbers on the bottom row 

3 numbers on the second row are swapped 

with 3 numbers on the fifth now 

3 numbers on the third row are swapped with 

3 numbers on the fourtli row 

1 35 34 3 32 6 

30 8 27 28 11 7 
24 23 15 16 14 19 
13 17 21 22 20 IS 
12 26 10 9 29 25 

31 2 4 33 5 36 

So then; you have some beisic rules for creat- 
ing Magic Squares. Let's see if you can trans- 
late these into a pmgram for creating Magic 
Squares on your Aiarl and perhaps we tan 
publish the results in a future Issue. • 



46 



Page 6's New Atari User 



Page 6's Neiv Atari User 



48 





■il 






^ 











John S Davison 
explores the 
Intei^net and 
discovers all 
the ivonders 
of a brave netv 
electronic 
ivorld 



Irecenlly came acitiss a reference to an 
Atari resource on the Internet f'd not 
heard of before. Its a World Wide Web 
site caJJed the Atari Reference Etesk (ARDJ, 
which can be found at http://www. 
geoci ties. CO m/Si lico n Valley / Peaks/ 
6320/atarlOO 1 , htin. It sounded just the sort 
of thing Atari fans needed - a central refer- 
ence point for all things Atari. So, [ decided to 
check It out and report my findings here. It's 
aimed at users of the Atari 66000 based sys- 
tems [STsonwardsJ. although future coverage 
is promised (and Is starting to appear) for 
8'bit and Portfolio uscns. 
As a general observation, Web sites some- 
times tend to be disappointing, as the mate- 
rial they contain can be either out of date or 
turns out to be just a list of references to 
other sites. It's possible to waste a lot of time 
juBl hopping across links from site lo silc and 
nc\cr actually getting anywhere in terms of 
finding useful information. Occasionally a 
site's prime reason forexisicnce seems lo be 
aa a Vehicle for llie owner to show off his 
technical skills as a web page builder, con 
tainlng screens full ofnash_v presentation giz- 
mos that take forever to toad, but offer very 
llti le in the way of real, useful content. ARD 
was said to be differeni, so 1 was keen Lo tr\' it 
out. Here's what I found. 




SO 



ST-FRIENDLY SITE 

ARD's designer, Terry Ross, has taken the 
view that his site should be accessible by 
Atari users \wth relatively modest sysiem re- 
sources rather than PC oi^mcrs with incred- 
ibly powerftd Pentium II systems. This means 
that the coding behind the site's pages has 

Fa^ B's New Atari User 



i^^JjL^'i-i-, .-Aww* ^ptadtet c ar.»'^»c jA^-ifc^^^a<^*^33DjjJ jCJ" hfl^ 



'ir ^T^' - T^T^rT-—-'^''^'^ ' ^ ' ' ■'—■■■■■ •i.-t^^f iia ihiHi T [■ , ^ ^ '.' . ■ -1 - ' u- ' - * -■-- Jh h ->- ^. ' - i -'t I >■■ ■■■ ■' ^--■-.— ^-»H,^^^ ^ 



\JS:KI 




■| t - I ■ 



.:^r 










r,v% ■- _. Ill- ■:■?-: ['i-. ', ^■^^;V:^?gjS<^sc<;;ft:M^ ■:., .....,.,. 

I . * 'i • "~i " '■ ' ■ 1" '" I r ' «■ ■■ ■ ■■ . J ■■ ' . ■■ 

■-■ ■ .-■■ ■..-■:.'*.'._. -ji."-. 



:-'-■■■■■!;-:■:!:■•■.•'-'.■'■ 






■■"A"-."'. "i.-" ■■ ■'^i 



i- t^^' 



■ m.' ■ ■ F.k • 



^^i:'-;■.^^^■■^;.^ v-:v' ,iV-.V:^N;^-'■'^;,'^^^^;..:;^if*. 






v 1 v »p.r-.' 



r^i^:l:;V,''^ 



Welcome 
screen of 
the Atari 
Reference 
Desk. 



been kept fairly sparse so an STs lowly pro- 
cessor can happily handle It, Graphics usage 
has been minimist-d, so memory usage, disk 
usage, and do^vnload times arc kept low too. 
Terrj' uses an STe fadnilttedly with 4MB 
I^AJVI), I K 720KB floppy drive (but no hiird 
drive), and a l4.4KB/s modem - a mcKiest 
sciup Indeed \vhtn compared with tcxiay's 
typical PC configuration. 

ARD is divided inio four mEun sections, enti- 
tled Links [iivhat a surprise!), Program Refer- 
ence Library, Miscellaneous info Dept., and 
Atari Community Builciin Board. The Links 
section Is subdivided into fi\'e further topics 
called Quick Links; General Links; Name 
Links; Help; and Others (the last of uhlcli 
doesn't seem to be i^iorking at present}. Click- 
ing on Quick Link.s puUs up an alphabetic list 
of H5 other U'W'W sites of Interest to Atari 
tiscrs. It's intended for use when you already 
know about a ptirtlcular site, but ha\c forgot- 
ten Its UR1>. 

Clicking on "General Links" prt)duccs what 



appears be a list of Terry's favourite siics, and 
is roughly divided Into subsections which in- 
clude "S'Y Magazines ' (on-line ones, that Is}, 
"Aiari Hardware information '. "Usefui Ijnks". 
and Computer Related Pages", lirmnni. could 
do wltlii better classification here, but Teny 
admila that there's Still work to do in this 
area, I noted some well known names 
amongst the sites lisicd, such as CaSamus 
Desktop Publishing,, ICD Atari Products, and 
Grlbnif Software, to narnc but three. This sec- 
lion also attempts to track and highlight 
changes of site addresses, a frequent "feature" 
of WWW sites. You can access a site through 
a given address for months, then suddenly 
you get an error message saying it's no longer 
there. Whiit's often liappened is that, ihe site's 
owner has found a better deal with a different 
Internet Sen'lce Provider sn ha.s moved his 
site there [somclimcii ftilh no wanting to 
users!]. ARf^ mKjnitijrs these changes and 
helpfully provides the new UfiL address. 
"Name Links" Is something 1 haven't come 



Page 6's Neuu Atari User 



5i 




across before. If youVe been Involved In the 
Atari scene on the Internet and remember a 
participant's name but can't remember their 
site naine or address, Lhcn this Is an Invalu- 
able tool. Vou Just look up the pereon's name 
and click on It to Link dlrecdy to their Web 
site. Now that's pretty neat. There were 56 
people named in the list, some of whom I 
recognised from previous Web surfing 
sessions. 

8-BIT LINKS 



only - wait for ft - SIX! This was a major 
disappointment - It's hardly worth botheiing 
for such a sparse list. The ne^ subsection 
provides a facility for current or past Atari 
programmers to enter details of their prog- 
rams- Si,iddeniy ajj became clear. Vou only 
sec an entiy if the ppogrammer has found the 
site and taken the trouble to enter the details. 
Looks like only a handful have done this so 
far. Elopefully this ^vlll improve over time. 



WHATEVER 



Help Links provides links to sites providing 
help in various catej^ories. For instance, then: 
are links here for the 8- bit systems, e.g. to 
Michael Current's superb Atari 8-b1t FAQ 
(Fret^isendv Asked Qucstitms) document, 
which IVe mentioned in previous articles. It 
also covers B-blt upgrade, modification and 
add-on topics; emulators: and lists of Atari 
vendors and developers. Oh. and there's ei-cn 
help for new users ■ although 1 wouldn't think 
there are many of those around these days! In 
the Communications Help section there's a 
Jink to an FAQ on the Beginner's Guide to 
Communications usinj^ your ST. and another 
covering Atari connectiv'lty to the Inteniet. I 
downloaded both of these and discovered they 
were dated 199S and 1994 respectively. Not 
so good. New communications software has 
been released since then (c,g, CAB for WWW 
access via the ST), but why do you rarely sec 
anything about It on these W^^U^ sites? 

The next section on ARD is the "Program 
Reference Libraiy". The "Index" of this sub- 
section claimed to proi.1de informaLion on 
Atari progrdms, such as where Ut get them, 
where to register HMpIcs, etc. I was expecting 
it to contain hundreds of entries, but it held 
53 Page 6's New Atari User 



HAPPENED TO...? 

Then we hav'c the "Miscellaneous Info Uept ' 
and tills contains two subsections. The first, 
■T^'hatever Happened To,,. ". Is an attempt to 
shed some light on what happened to the 
personalities of the Atari scene of years gone 
by. You can post a reqviest for a pariinular 
person and users of Afffi can then enter any 
in formal ion they know about Ihfit person's 
whereabouts and what they are doing now. 
For instance, remember Clayton Walnum? He 
used to write for ANALOG miigazinc years 
ago. Well, he's apparently alive and kinking 
and now spends his time writing program- 
ming manuals. His e-mail and Web Kite 
addresses are provided so yon can contact 
him if you wish. This is a great Idea, but 
again there are only half a dozen or so entries 
with follow-up details, plus another two or 
three requests for information, {I'l^^fiks - 1 
might submit Les's name for this, together 
with details of NAUl). 

The second subsection is called "Random 
Facts", and is supposed to contain Atari re- 
lated rumours, clarification, and trivia, but 








mn 



^^ I ,H..i,H '-^j "^1 ^-i>**-; I ■^^ 




:□ 



■fhi F-^ ^ di****^ *"*»« -Jftta -tan Si tmiTi iOLt M^^nrrcM 



uV'A^Kt ^'--mt^iytr^ 









I ""c^ Ttk-irm^ ftitra 



contained no information and didn't appear to 
link to any tiling. Similarly the final major 
section, "Atari Community Bulletin Eioard". 
had a note attaclied saying plEins for this have 
been put on hold, so has no content either. 



NOW FOLLOW 
THE LINKS 

If AKD's content is on the light side, what 
about the quality of the links? One link thai 
caught my eve was "tlallvards Atari SI' Global 
Access Page'" run by Halh'iii'd Tangeraas, 
When accessed, this site actually announced 
ilseif as "llie Atari [iyperSink Launchpad", Oh 
no, not ANOTl iER list of links! Tills one has 
15 sections, and I was immediately attracted 
to the "MIDI/Sotind" .sectioii [music being one 
of my major interests). This in turn led to a 
list of 16 further links, one of which was 
"Wota tor/Creator SL Users Page". Bingo [ 
E magic's Notator is the software I use for 
MIDI sequencing and niu.sic scon: production 
<in my ST (and I also use its successor, Erna- 
glc s LcigJe. on tiiy PC ' also available on liiC 
ST]. Following this link produced a page tell- 
ing ine I could now subscribe (for free] to a 
Notator mailscn'er located in Austria. This is 



Entry to th£ Notator/ 
Creator SL Users site 



like a worldwide bulletin board for Notator 
which automatically e-mails any new en- 
tries posted tliere directly to subscribers - 
you don't have to go and fetch them your- 
self. It only came into use on 7 February 
98, so this news was bang up to date. J 
signed up for this immediately, and the 
next time I logged on there: were e-mail 
messages confirming my participation and 
instructions on how to use the service. Prom 
that point on I started receiving messages 
from Notator users. Great ■ it works! 
The next link I tried was to the World Wide 
Logic Users Web site. This, in fact, seemed to 
cover all Emaglc's products so was a real find. 
It's not run by Emagic, but by users for users. 
There's a whole stack of useful items here - in 
particular some superb looking online tuto- 
rials for various E magic products. E magic's 
music programs are VERY complex and the 
user manuals provided are, shall we say, 
somewhat opaque, so a site like this is the 
answer to a prayer. Altliough the tutorials use 
the Apple Mac versions of the software, the 
PC and Atari \'ersions are similar. There was 
Only time for a <]Ulck look while preparing this 
article, but I Tvas very impressed and shall 
certainly come back here for a more thorough 
perusal. 



FREE SOFTWARE 

There are another 15 links from the Hyper- 
link Launchpad, including to Sweet Music 
Software who pro\'lde the freely doivnJoadablc 
"^Sweet SLxleen' ST MIDI sequencer, and Mol- 
lis Research from where you can obtain the 
famous Trackman" sequencer and "MlDl- 



Poge 6's New Atari User 



S3 




contact ... contact ... contact 



man" universal editor contra Her, also for free. 
The lasst two were full commercial ST products 
In tlielr day, and John HolUs, their author, 
has removed the copy protection and made 
them freely available on the Internet now they 
have little oomjnerclal value. What a great 
gesture ' It's a pity more authors don't have 
John's enlightened attitude to old software 
products. 

So what of ARD, which was after all our 
original topic? Well, ifs NOT a source of mate- 



rial tn its own right, which is what 1 was 
[perhaps mistakenly) expecting. It IS an excel- 
lent starting point If you're searching the In- 
ternet for Atari material. After all, if 1 hadn't 
gone there J probably Wouldn't have found my 
way to the Notator mailacrvcr or the Lcygic 
Users slte^ and botli of these are very useful 
resources, to mc anyway. It just goes to show 
that you shouldn't deride sites that pro^i^de 
only links, 'ihey could be Just tlie links you 
need- • 



NAU Internet Contact List 


The follGWkngi NAU readers would welcome e mail contact from other Atari users. If yotid like to 


be add^ to this list plaase di'op an e-mail note to John S Davison a1 the address bejcw. 


Daniel Baverstock 


dbave rstock^ mistral.co.uk 


Paul Bramley 


p.brarnlley@stLiderit.qut.edu.au 


Paul Carlson 


pauil,carl&on@hn.$e 


Johnny Chan 


iwchar(35clara.net 


Michael Current 


mcu rre ni© carl etor.edu 


John S Davison 


)o h n_dav isD n@co mp u se rve .CO m 


Dami^an Dixor 


damian@tenet.cci.uk 


Gary Dundas 


davadan@holkey.net au 


Derek Fern 


I01755.2443@compuserve.com 


Dean Ganraghty 


dgs@clara.net 


Joel Goodwin 


jgoodw in@ wi 1 co eo.uk 


Paul Herbert 


147378.97@swansea.ac.uk 


Gordori Hooper 


u a55 S@f ree net . v ict o ria . be .ca 


Fred Meijer 


fmeijer@dsv.nl 


Ann O'Driscoll 


anno d(S>io Lie 


Allan Palmer 


100644. 1040@compuserve. com 


Paul Rixon 


hx onp . ra lit raGk@ em & . rai 1 . CO , u k 


Paulo A Rodrigues 


nop25450@mail.telepac.pt 


Brad Rogers 


brad@pianosa .demon. co.uk 


Nigel Tuiion 


npturton@msri.com 


Henning Wright 


kotta@algonei.se 


Daniel Yelland 


yh182530@EtmaiLstaffs.ac.uk 


Bryan Zillwood 


b.j.2illwood@exeter.ac.uk 



54 



ir'age 6's Afem j^ttiri User 



FOR SALE 



SPACE NEEDED: Due to 

lack of space, an Atari software 
collector has a very full range 
of titles for sale. Anyone in- 
lBre$ted can ask tor lists. All 
titles are original witii both 
packaging and full info. Also 
many books, STOS and mainu- 
als ett. Magazines - Page 6 
and Atari User. Also available 
ST/E softiware, all originals; 
maigazines - ST User. ST For- 
mat. ST AcSon up 10 final 
issues. Cover disks also avail- 
able. HARDWARE - Ata/i 800 
with translator; 130XE; two 
XL's; 65XE; SI drive; two 
1050 drives {1 With US Doub- 
le r, 1 with Happy cNp); 1029 
printer with spare ribbons. All 
with pQwer supplies and leads. 
Phone any tirne ■ S. Keyworth 
01246 851395. Can deliver if 
order large enough. I am open 
to offers. 

FOR SALE: Ala riS bit hard 

ware and software. For |i$t 
please contact Mike on 
(01302) 8344 fO ore-mail ham- 
£ter{gi& uper.net.uk 



WANTED 



CHROMA CAD: Chroma 

Cad package wanted or any 
good design package to run on 
expanded XL. Also Eprom 
Programmer or details about. 
Please phone Karl on 01226 
270842 

MAGAZINES: I am looking 
for PAGE 6 issues t to 30, 32 

and as, Anyhody got any 
tead$? Joe Bo^gsrd, 1014 
Valerie Drive, Schenectady, 
N.Y. 12309, USA 

DISK DRIVE: 1050 disk drive 
wanted for Atari 800XL. Must 
have all Conner: tkin leads. 
lUust be in good working order 
and reasonably priced. Must 
be in London/MZS area fof 
pick-up. Contact Steve on 
0181 501 4739 



HELP 



ERROR CODES: Can any- 
one please help me with ex- 
plaining tha various Error 
Codes. 1 am trying to program 
our 8O0XL but keep getting 
errors. I have a list of the Error 
codes but don't know what 
tfiey mean. Can anyone help? 
Please contact S fiateman on 
0181 5014739 



AATARI 





FREE TO SUBSCRIBERS 

The CONTACT column is free of charge to subscribers who wish to sell thfir 
equipment or contatt ottier readers. Space is llinlted su we request that entries be 
kept as short as possible. Extremely lonjg entries may be heavily edited or ignored. 
Send vour CONTACT noi.icc on a separate sheet of paper (not a.s pari of a letter) to: 

COPTTACT, PAGE 6 PUBLISHING, STAFFORD, STL6 IDR 



FOR SALE ... WANTED ... PEN PALS ... ADVICE ... HELP 



C-nfj liiji-^ prc3i^t*;ij^l ijjStli^i^A \vhlch are too loiig to Include Sra the rrfcPijCli-U.lJ5«r iiiL-*y ij-Kr tal-iT4^1i]<ri:l 

's-HLie f>isk iv>:i]^']i li& ftVrtSlsihle w-ath each isauiie. nt;¥neTnl>*^t- tJ-ilst dwk £dpi*> Irfct-lutJ^ft* BOKUS 
i<OORAJMS w]-i(in|T fio nest appcu,ir In tlic rxisi^iijclrie. It you ^vouJd Lfik-fc iji*- t^^'pr-- 111 llAitiiij^A 

P^crtrst- ^v^Ue or teiepHoTie lrbdK-;^IJii,iJl ^vhleii ll«T.lri^» yuLl require. Ple^utie note that there 
•"*" riiot ric:ii:e-fi«;^ii'E|y <?-?ctJ-ia tlittngi Jor cvin^Ty t-ii:* cjj^T-t-iniF- 

S JV3LF~ FO JtZ> , ^STJ ^ Jt JtJ** hT.*- C ■> I^j^ hn- m c^ Cf 1 S^^^ ^^S. ±S3 

Page 6's i^ew Atari User